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Moon!!!. How Big Is the Moon and Sun? Whitchurch High School Year 8. Earth to the Moon. The Moon is 384,403 kilometres (238,857 miles) distant from the Earth! Its diameter is 3,476 kilometres (2,160 miles).

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Slide1 l.jpg

Moon!!!

How Big Is the Moon and Sun?

Whitchurch High School

Year 8


Earth to the moon l.jpg
Earth to the Moon

  • The Moon is 384,403 kilometres (238,857 miles) distant from the Earth!

  • Its diameter is 3,476 kilometres (2,160 miles).

  • Both the rotation of the Moon and its revolution around Earth takes 27 days, 7 hours, and 43 minutes.

  • The Moon’s orbit is not perfectly circular.

  • So the distance is an average!




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Averages

  • The average diameter of the moon is 3,536,667metres

  • The Distance to the Moon is 384,000,000 metres!


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The Ball ExperimentThis will test the ratio equationthat has just been usedto find the moon diameter.


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1 large ball

1 small ball

A ruler

Paper and Pen

Place your measuring stick with the 0 edge on the side of the table

Then place the large ball at the other end of the meter stick

Place the small ball in front of the large ball at the point where the small ball eclipses the large ball from eye level

Look at the end of the measuring stick and record how far the small ball was away from the big ball.

How to do the ball experiment


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BALL 2

BALL 1

EYE

B

A

Eye

X

Y

Z

KEY (NOTE MEASUREMENTS ALL IN cm)

A=BALL 1 DIAMETER B=BALL 2 DIAMETER

X=DIST TO BALL 1 Y=DIST TO BALL 2


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our results

A

(cm)

B

(cm)

Z

(cm)

X

(cm)

B/A

Z/X

2.7

2.7

2.7

2.7

3.5

3.5

3.5

3.5

9.5

9 .5

9.5

9.5

50.0

100.0

150.0

200.0

17.9

37.0

60.0

76.5

2.8

2.7

2.5

2.6


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From our results we have concluded that :

The ratio of the two distances and the ratio of the two diameters is the same at about 2.7

B/A = Z/X

So this means the method we just used to measure the diameter of the Moon is valid.


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Measuring The Sea of Crisis

BY: Thomas Pacey and Hugo Vine


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What is the ‘Sea of Crisis’

  • The Sea of Crisis is a crater/sea on the moon

  • It looks like this:

This is a picture we took of the Sea of Crisis. We took it by placing a web-cam on the back of a telescope and videoed our findings. We used a computer program to stack up the frames and come out with a brilliant picture like this.

The Sea of Crisis


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Method

  • We cut a semicircular hole in a piece of cardboard that measured 1cm in diameter.

  • We then stuck this up.

  • We then slowly stepped back until the Sea of Crisis fitted into the hole.

  • We measured the distance from us to the cardboard

  • We did the experiment four times over and took an average result

  • We then used the other groups results to work out the approx

  • size of the Sea of Crisis


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The Results

  • (X) The diameter of the hole in the cardboard, 0.01m (1cm)

  • (Y) The diameter of the Sea of Crisis

    in metres

  • (A) The average distance from us to the cardboard semicircle was 7.00m

  • (B) The distance from the Moon to the Earth, 384,000,000m


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The Answer!

B/A = Y/X ,

This is a ratio standing for distance from earth to moon divided by the distance from us to cardboard is equivalent to the diameter of the Sea of Crisis divided by the size of the semicircle in the cardboard.

The diameter of the Sea of Crisis = B / A x X = Y

The diameter is 550,000m

( Y ) – this is to 2 significant figures


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Conclusion

  • Using ratios we calculated the diameter of the Sea of Crisis.

  • We discovered that the diameter of the Sea of Crisis is 550,000m

  • We used the distance from Earth to Sun - 384,000,000m

    End



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The Pinhole Camera

  • We used a pinhole camera to take measurements of the sun.


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What is a Pinhole Projector

A pinhole projector is a box that has a black surface on 1 side, there is a hole a hole in the middle of the black surface. On the other side there is a translucent surface.


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Hole

Object

Image on screen

This is a pinhole camera


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The Equation

Diameter of the sun = height of sun image

Sun to pinhole image to pinhole


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The Numbers Bit

  • Camera 1

  • Measurements:-

  • Height of image:- 0.2cm

  • Distance from pinhole:- 16.7cm

  • Distance to Sun:-1.496x10 8km


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The Answer

  • 0.2cm x 1.496x108 km

    16.7cm

    =1.8x106 km =diameter of sun


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The Numbers bit continued

  • Camera 2

  • Measurements:-

  • Height of Image:- 0.1cm

  • Distance from Pinhole:-14.0cm

  • Distance to Sun:-1.5x10 8 km


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The Answer

  • 0.1cm x 1.496x108 km

    14.0cm

    Diameter of Sun:-1.1x10 6 km


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The Average Size of the Sun

  • 1.8x106km+1.1x106km=1.45x106 km

    2


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The Actual Answer

The Sun diameter is

1,391,980 km

Reference GCSE Astronomy