Overview of theCanadian dairy industry Gilles Froment, M.Sc., P.Ag. Senior Director, Policy and Corporate Affairs Canadian Dairy Commission, Ottawa March 26, 2009 DM146846
Outline • The Canadian marketing system and its component • 3 pillars of supply management • Seasonality programs • Milk pools • Marketing and innovation initiatives • Current issues
Snapshot of theCanadian Dairy Industry • 14,036 farms producing more than 80 billion litres of milk (8 million tonnes) • 445 processing plants • Milk sales: $5.2 billion • Adds a net $9.7 billion to the GDP • Processed products sales: $11.6 billion • Supports $30 billion of economic activity • Sustains more than 160,600 jobs
Major Milk Producing Countries(cow milk, 2007) Source: International Dairy Federation
Further processor Producer Marketing Board (provincial) Retailer Processor Consumer Canada’s Milk Marketing System
CMSMC Canadian Milk Supply Management Committee • Permanent body of signatories of the National Milk Marketing Plan - NMMP (voting members) – One vote per province • Dairy Farmers of Canada, Dairy Processors Association of Canada and Consumers’ Association of Canada (non-voting members) • Responsible for policy determination and supervision of the NMMP provisions • Meets 4 times a year • Virtually all decisions require unanimity
The CMSMC directs the implementation of the National Milk Marketing Plan (NMMP) to coordinate actions of provincial producer boards and governments Sask (3) Quebec (4) Non-voting members DFC DPAC P.E.I. (3) CAC CDC chair Ontario (4) N.S. (3) Alberta (3) Newfoundland (3) B.C. (3) N.B. (3) Manitoba (3)
NMMP National Milk Marketing Plan • Federal-provincial agreement • Regulates marketing of industrial milk • Balances supply and demand • Sets out the establishment, distribution and adjustment of industrial milk quota
The Canadian Dairy Commission • Crown corporation created in 1966 • Reports to Parliament through Minister • 3 commissioners, 63 employees • Generally deals with industrial milk • Total budget for 2007-2008: $7.8 million • Funded by government, dairy producers and the marketplace
Legislated Mandate • Provide efficient producers of milk and cream with the opportunity to obtain a fair return for their labour and investment. • Provide consumers of dairy products with a continuous and adequate supply of dairy products of high quality.
Overview of Key Activities • Chair the CMSMC • Calculate Estimated Requirements (demand) • Recommend Market Sharing Quota • Establish Support Prices • Administer Revenue and Market Sharing Agreements (pools) • Administer Special Milk Class Permit Program • Carry out external audits • Create and administer marketing programs • Remove surplus production • Administer Seasonality Programs
Industrial (Classes 2-4) used in the manufacture of butter, cheese, ice cream, yogurt, milk powders longer shelf life federal responsibility – interprovincial movement of product Fluid (Class 1) used in 1%, 2%, skim milk, etc. and creams short shelf life provincial responsibility – historically made and consumed in province of origin Milk Categories
3 Pillars of Supply Management • controlled prices • controlled imports • controlled production
Pillar 1: Controlled Prices • Industrial milk prices • Are determined by provinces based on CDC support prices and vary depending on the end use of the milk • Support prices are the prices at which the CDC buys and sells butter and skim milk powder under its various programs. • Support prices are announced in December by the CDC to be effective February 1.
World Prices for Cow Milk (2007, US$/100 kg) Source: International Dairy Federation
Pillar 1: Controlled Prices • Fluid milk prices • are determined by provinces according to a formula • 40% indexed COP • 30%CPI • 30%PDI/capita • Valid until Jan 31, 2010 • Currently negotiating a new formula with all 10 provinces
Milk Prices in last 12 monthsFebruary 2008 – January 2009 • Average in-quota revenues : $72.20 • Average price for fluid: $85.41 • Average price for industrial: $63.53
Pillar 2: Controlled Imports • Most dairy products are protected by Tariff Rate Quota (TRQs). • Above TRQs, dairy products have a tariff of almost 300%.
Pillar 2: Controlled Imports • Examples of TRQ and over-quota tariffs
Pillar 3: Controlled Production • Provincial milk marketing boards allocate production quota to their respective dairy farmers. • This quota combines both fluid milk quota and industrial milk quota. • Fluid milk quota is established by provincial marketing boards and equals demand. • Industrial milk quota is established nationally by the CMSMC and is called Market Sharing Quota (MSQ). • Quota is calculated and expressed in kg of BF.
Establishing MSQ • The CDC calculates the Estimated Canadian Requirements - ECR (demand) on a monthly basis. • ECR= Production + Opening Stocks + Imports – Closing stocks – exports – DDPIP – Class 4(m) • MSQ is adjusted every two months when ECR increase or decrease.
Evolution of MSQ 1% and 2% milk more popular; lower butter consumption Low butter stocks Quota cut of 1976
Respecting production targets • Provincial production targets: • Upper limit: 0.5% • Lower limit: 1.5% • Provinces are free to have their own policies to adjust their farm quota or not, however, provinces will be penalized if they over or under produce their share of quota. • Over production: no payment for the milk • Under production: lost opportunity to produce
CDC Seasonality Programs • While milk production is quite stable year round, people consume more dairy products in the fall/winter and less in the spring. • To offset this, the CDC buys and stores butter and skim milk powder in the spring and puts those products back in the market in the fall/winter. • These transactions are done at support prices.
Plan A Becomes the property of the CDC 25 kg blocks Plan B Must buy back within one year of production of the product One-pound prints ready for retail sales. Seasonality Programs - Butter
Managing Surpluses • Production is managed on butterfat basis. • Surpluses of milk solids non fat (SNF) arise because consumers want the fat portion of the milk more than the SNF portion. • The CDC buys the surplus SNF and disposes of it by exporting it or selling it for animal feed. • Both these markets yield a lower return to producers than regular sales.
IMPORTS According to WTO (3,274 mt) Butter : sold to further processors Cheese: private sector imports (21,800 mt) EXPORTS Subsidized exports according to WTO limits (none to USA) SMP (CDC exports to Cuba and Mexico) Permits for private exporters including non-contingent classes CDC Import / Export
Pools were established in themid-1990’s in response to… • Increased concentration at the retail and processing levels • New trade rules (FTA, NAFTA, WTO) • Differing provincial policies (for ex. Milk allocation to plants) • Fluid milk moving between provinces • Inequities in producer returns
The CDC administers 3 milk pools • The P10 (all 10 provinces) • The P5 (in the East) • The WMP (in the West) • These pools allow dairy farmers to share and balance revenues, markets and in some cases, transportation costs.
How does pooling work?Before pooling Average Pool Price (hl) = $72.00
How pools are administered • Provinces report production and sales data (by milk class) monthly to the CDC. • The CDC calculates money transfers between members to equalize returns. • The CDC calculates quota allocations when demand changes. • The CDC keeps a bank account for pool operations.
Resulting in harmonization of… • Multiple component pricing • Producer prices • Milk classification • Quota policies • POOL = RISK MANAGEMENT TOOL
Some of the CDC initiatives • The Dairy Marketing Program • The Domestic Dairy Product Innovation Program • The Special Milk Class Permit Program
Strong market growth sectors The finished products: - Sports recovery drinks/powders - Meal replacement products (bars, beverages) - Meal / dietary supplements - Organic products - Pet food The dairy components: - Organic milk protein concentrates and isolates, casein, caseinates, peptides The challenges: - Ingredients that are still relatively new or not available from our industry (MPC,MPI) - World market priced/ highly competitive market - Manufacturers/users looking for level playing field conditions
Current challenges • Growing structural surplus of SMP - Finding new markets for solids non fat • current stocks of 35 million kgs • Evolving demand from consumers – substitution from non-dairy ingredients • Soy-based products (imitation cheeses) • frozen desserts • The market for dairy products is fairly mature • Effect of the economic crisis on dairy consumption?