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Re-Entry and Recidivism. Libby Deschenes, Ph.D. Cal State University, Long Beach Barbara Owen, Ph.D. and Jason Crow Cal State University, Fresno. Increasing Burden on CJS. Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics Correctional Surveys. Drug Offenders Increasing Percentage of Prison Releases.

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re entry and recidivism

Re-Entry and Recidivism

Libby Deschenes, Ph.D.

Cal State University, Long Beach

Barbara Owen, Ph.D. and

Jason CrowCal State University, Fresno

increasing burden on cjs
Increasing Burden on CJS

Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics Correctional Surveys

drug offenders increasing percentage of prison releases
Drug Offenders Increasing Percentage of Prison Releases

Source: http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/reentry/releases.htm

increases in recidivism
Increases in Recidivism

Source: http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/reentry/recidivism.htm#recidivism

challenges of re entry
Challenges of Re-entry
  • Serious social and medical problems
    • 75% history drug/alcohol abuse
    • 16% report a mental condition
    • Less than one-third received treatment
  • Few have marketable skills or sufficient literacy to become gainfully employed
    • 33% unemployed at arrest
    • 60% have GED or HS diploma
    • 25% in vocational training programs
    • 33% participated education programs

Source: J. Petersilia (2005) Hard Time: Ex-Offenders Returning Home after Prison

current research
Current Research
  • Study funded by NIJ using archived data
    • Examines recidivism patterns during 3 years post release
    • Evaluates measures of offense specialization
  • How do incarceration and recidivism of males and females differ?
  • What factors will be important for prisoner re-entry?
research design
Research Design
  • Secondary data
    • Collected by Bureau of Justice Statistics
  • Three year follow-up of inmates released in 1994
    • Discharged from 15 states
  • Weighted data for all analyses
    • 248,528 males
    • 23,585 females
data sources for recidivism measures
Data Sources for Recidivism Measures
  • Official FBI and state criminal histories
    • Rearrest
    • Reconviction
    • Resentenced to prison
  • Official criminal history and state DOC
    • Return to prison with or without new sentence
results
Results
  • Sample characteristics by gender
    • Demographics
    • Criminal history
    • Recidivism
  • Patterns of male and female offending
comparing demographics by gender
Comparing Demographicsby Gender
  • Females represent 8.7% of total sample
  • Black women (50.5%) more represented than White women (48.5%), in direct contrast with males (Black, 48.3%; White, 50.6%)
  • Hispanic women underrepresented in comparison to males (19.6% versus 25%)
  • Women released later in life than men
comparing sentences by gender
Comparing Sentencesby Gender
  • Higher proportion of women (79%) incarcerated for property or drug offense than men (65%)
  • Women sentences shorter than malesby 10.3 months, averaging 49.6 months
  • Women served a mean time of 14.2 months, 6.7 months less than the men
  • Women served 30.2% of original sentence, men served 35.7% of original sentence
comparing criminal history by gender
Comparing Criminal Historyby Gender
  • Similar prior arrest rates (92.8% and 93.2%, respectively)
  • Males more likely to have at least one prior conviction (96.9% to 89.1%)
  • Women less likely to have a prior prison sentence (37.3% vs. 44.2%)
recidivism for male and female prisoners
Recidivism for Male and Female Prisoners

REARR: Rearrested (recidivated)

RECON: Reconvicted

RENPS: Returned to prison with a new sentence

RPWOW: Returned to prison with or without a new sentence

violent offense category by recidivism status by gender
Violent Offense Category by Recidivism Status by Gender

REARR: Rearrested (recidivated)

RECON: Reconvicted

RENPS: Returned to prison with a new sentence

RPWOW: Returned to prison with or without a new sentence

property offense category by recidivism status by gender
Property Offense Category by Recidivism Status by Gender

REARR: Rearrested (recidivated)

RECON: Reconvicted

RENPS: Returned to prison with a new sentence

RPWOW: Returned to prison with or without a new sentence

drug offense category by recidivism status by gender
Drug Offense Category by Recidivism Status by Gender

REARR: Rearrested (recidivated)

RECON: Reconvicted

RENPS: Returned to prison with a new sentence

RPWOW: Returned to prison with or without a new sentence

public order offense category by recidivism status by gender
Public-order Offense Category by Recidivism Status by Gender

REARR: Rearrested (recidivated)

RECON: Reconvicted

RENPS: Returned to prison with a new sentence

RPWOW: Returned to prison with or without a new sentence

other offense category by recidivism status by gender
Other Offense Category by Recidivism Status by Gender

REARR: Rearrested (recidivated)

RECON: Reconvicted

RENPS: Returned to prison with a new sentence

RPWOW: Returned to prison with or without a new sentence

time to rearrest for females
Time to Rearrest for Females

Variables in the Equation

black 273.3hispanic 22.6sentence 144.6age rlse 647.1# priors 2259.9time serve 36.0violent first 41.8 drug first 63.1

preliminary findings on female recidivism and specialization
Preliminary Findings on Female Recidivism and Specialization
  • Three strongest predictors
    • Number of prior arrests
    • Age at release
    • African-American race
  • Drug and property offenders more likely than violent offenders to be re-arrested
  • High proportion of career offenses same type
    • Over half of property offenders repeat
    • About one third for violent or drug offenses
policy implications
Policy Implications
  • Male violent offenders pose greatest risk
    • Need for community reinvestment initiativesto reverse socioeconomic risk factors
  • Female property and drug offenders highest rates of recidivism
    • Community-based treatment may be more appropriate than prison
    • Re-entry should focus on drug treatment, stable housing, wraparound services
california prisons versus other states
California Prisons versus Other States

Source: Fischer (2005) UCI Center for Evidence Based Corrections Bulletin 1(1)

california recidivism has different policy implications
California Recidivism Has Different Policy Implications
  • Fischer’s analysis controls for background
    • Rearrest not higher in CA compared to FL
    • Reconviction lower in CA compared to NY
  • High rates of technical violations partially explained by fact that nearly all CA prisoners report to parole agents
  • Petersilia (2005) recommends reinstating discretionary parole
  • Austin, Hardyman & Irwin (2002) suggest reducing time on parole to 6 months and require parole board guidelines based on risk and need
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