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Integrated Human Development An alternative Indian model of Sustainable Development. A preliminary draft for discussion. Overview. Introduction Current Crisis Some existing relevant measures Roots of the crisis Exploring options Economic achievements over millennia Indian worldview

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Integrated Human Development An alternative Indian model of Sustainable Development

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    1. Integrated Human DevelopmentAn alternative Indian model of Sustainable Development • A preliminary draft for discussion

    2. Overview • Introduction • Current Crisis • Some existing relevant measures • Roots of the crisis • Exploring options • Economic achievements over millennia • Indian worldview • Indian concept of development • Parameters of Development • Task Ahead

    3. Introduction • Today’s socio – political debate revolves around development agenda • Economic growth forms the core of development action • Globally, there is a rat race to increase economic growth • Economic growth has resulted in huge crisis leading to • Depletion of natural resources • Increase catastrophes and threat to food and agriculture • Alarming impacts on society • Assault on cultural diversity • Paradoxically growth based development has been detrimental to very existence and survival of life on earth in total • Hence an urgent need to establishing a holistic and integrated approach to development • Ancient Indian society was known to have such model

    4. Current Crisis

    5. Environmental disaster • Excess fossil fuel consumption – expected scarcity by 2050 • Natural gas and Coal will be severely scarce commodity by 2080 and 2100 • 25% increase in pandemic and epidemic communicable disease in 10 years • Sea level rise due to polar ice melt would submerge more than 50 islands globally 2050 accounting more than 3.5 million refugees in India and Bangladesh • Ganga glacier melt – by 2050 would impact more than 4 million people in gangetic delta • 38% of land area is used for agriculture, and sea level rise by 2050 would reduce minimum of 5% of land surface • Every year 13 million hectares of forest lost globally, adding to climate change and global warming • Nearly 17,000 species biodiversity threatened on which more than 1.5 billions of people are directly dependent for their livelihoods

    6. Crisis : Food and agriculture • Globally 1 billion people are under nourished • 40% reduction in global soil productivity - expected chronic food scarcity by 2050 • Depletion in genetic diversity – ex, In India 42000 rice varieties were grown before green revolution – today fewer than 500 variety grown • Almost 80% of global fish stock is over exploited by 2009 • 40% of the earth will face physical scarcity of fresh water by 2025 • 70% freshwater is used for agricultural production in 2007 and More than 30% of fresh water decline is expected by 2025 • Global warming is predicted to reduce 30% wheat and 15% irrigated rice production by 2050 in developing countries • Global grain reserve declining steeply since 2000 – lowest in 2009 • Constant increase in landless rural livelihood - accounts 22% in India in 2008

    7. Impact on Society • The rich - poor divide has increased from 3:1 in 1820 to 72:1 in 2006 with One third of the world lives below the poverty line • 1.6 billion people live with vulnerable employment and the poorest 50% of the world’s adult population receives 1% of global wealth • Around 9 million children die under the age of 5 due to lack of Medicare, 100 million children globally are homeless and sleep on streets • 2.6 billion people globally lack access to sanitation • Globally, 75 million children (55 % girls) with no schooling - 776 million adults (16 % of adult population) lacked basic literacy skills —two-thirds of whom were women • In India – divorce doubled in past 10 years with 3.6% increase in crime rate • In India increase in crime against women by 17% and crime against Children by 10.2% • Increased urbanization – More than half the globe in cities by 2050 - 33% of urban population – slum dwellers today • In India - Cyber fraud increased by 44.9% in one decade of which people under age group 18-30 accounted for 61.2% of the offence

    8. Impact on Culture • More than 350 million indigenous community, accounting 6% of global population spread over 72 countries facing threat of extinctions. • Of around 8000 language spoken globally, over 11.5% (600) of the language has less than 150 speakers and 95.2% of languages are listed threatened globally • Dominance of English as single communicative language is threat to multilingualism, identity and by 2050 half the world will have single lingua franca • Culture Industry – accounts 3.4% of global GDP – economic promotion of culture • Annual steady 4% increase in ethnic violence - displacing of over 20 million people • 3 billion people use disappearing traditional medicine as primary health care • Homogenization of food consumption – 2 decades there has been 94.5% shift towards rice and wheat – reduction in crop and food diversity

    9. Some relevant measures

    10. Important measures of development • GDP is the principal measureof growth for more than half a century and still continues to be the dominant indicator • Only few indicators are known to address issues of happiness, well being and sustainability • More than 20 indicators have been used to measure progress • Sense of incompleteness is prevalent in all the available measures • Some of the most important ones are • Human Development Index (HDI) • Ecological Footprint (EF) • The Happy Planet Index (HPI) • Gross National Happiness (GNH)

    11. Gross Domestic Product (GDP) • Considered as measure of progress and economic growth • The value of output of goods and services produced during one year • Can be viewed as being national income, national output or aggregate demand (AD) • GDP per capita – GDP divided by the population (GDP per head) • It is only an aggregate monitory measure • A large set of services are not accounted • Cannot measure welfare objectives • Cannot measure natural stock and ecosystem services • No opportunity to incorporate culture

    12. Human Development Index (HDI) • HDI – A socio-economic measure (1990 – World Bank) • Revised measure in 2010 • Earlier HDIs measured Longevity , Knowledge and Income poverty • Focus on multiple dimensions of human welfare: • Health and Education • Well being and happiness, Multidimensional poverty • Environmental vulnerability, Living standards • ICT, Economy • Infrastructure • Employment etc.. • Non income HDI • Robust theory and methodology

    13. The Happy Planet Index (HPI) • HPI challenges other well-established indices such as (GDP) and (HDI). (Europe – Global measure – 2006) • Built on principles of • Ecological Sustainability • Social Justice • People’s Well-being • It connects Human system (culture, education, governance, economy, social capital and health) with Ecosystem (natural capital, water quality, biodiversity, co2 emission, air quality and soil erosion) by controlling resource demands • Consider ecosystem and human well being as two compelling parts of development • Measured as a ratio of happy long life(life satisfaction X life expectancy) divided by resource use (ecological foot print)

    14. Ecological Footprint(EF) • EF compares human consumption of natural resources with Earth’s ecological capacity (biocapacity) to regenerate them. Also called living planet index (LPI) (WWF – Global Measure – 2006) • EF measures the amount of ecologically productive land used by individuals, cities, countries, etc. • EF believes that production and use of goods and services involve land use: have ecological footprints • Measures foot prints of consumption • Measures inequality in terms of ecosystem functions • The recent measures concluded following key elements • There is not enough earth to support our current consumption patterns • Thus all poor countries cannot follow the miracle of developed countries • Someone must bear the ecological burden of consumption by the affluent • Our continued over-consumption hits the poor hardest

    15. Gross National Happiness (GNH) • It is an attempt to define quality of life in a more holistic and psychological terms than GNP • GNH is practiced in Bhutan since 2004 and is based on Buddhist worldview • GNH believes that material and spiritual development together can constitute true development • Four pillars of GNH • The promotion of equitable and sustainable socio-economic development • Preservation and promotion of cultural values • Conservation of the natural environment • Establishment of good governance

    16. Roots of the Crisis

    17. Roots of the crisis • Current practice of “development” is material economy centric, understood as economic growth • Economic growth means increase in the production and consumption of goods and services, which is measured as GDP • A thinking which is consequence of Western, “modern” worldview • Human species is superior than all creatures, • Nature is an infinite resource • Materialism and consumerism • Atomizing the individuals • Nationalizing the families, communities and their functions

    18. Exploring Options

    19. Option • Patchwork approach would not resolve the crisis • The notion of development needs complete transformation • Alternative could be more than economic growthwith environment, welfare, culture and society finding a place in it • India flourished as a world leader even on the economic front for 1700 years and still retained balance with nature and life • Therefore this worldview could be the basis of Indian approach to development

    20. Economic achievements over millennia

    21. Indian Legacy • With this world view, Indian spectacular achievements as an economic superpower is undisputedly established • Paul Bairoch – Economic Historian – GATT • Estimated global production for the period of 1700 - 1980 • During 1700 – 1800 - India’s share of global production was 24.5% as opposed to 23.2% produced by entire Europe • Angus Maddisson – Economic Historian – OECD • Estimated global GDP and population for the period of 1 CE – 2000 CE – predicted till 2030 • From the 1CE till 1700CE –for 1700 years – India had almost continuously reigned as the most successful and most powerful economy in the world • Generating over a fifth to a third of the global output continuously over the millennia

    22. Distribution of World GDP: 1-2003AD First row: Share of GDP in Billion dollars; Second row: Percentage contribution to global GDP Source: Angus Maddisson, Contours of the World Economy 1-2030AD, Oxford 2007

    23. Indian Worldview

    24. Indian worldview • The whole universe is the manifestation of consciousness (Vishwa Chaitanya) at different levels • Chiti – Universal integration of souls - Individual to nation creates kinship based society • Philosophy of Purushartha evolved and instituted a model of duty centric socio-economic order • Purusharthic life: worshiping wealth (Artha) and pleasure (Kama) subjected to the code of ethics (Dharma) leading to eternal bliss (Moksha) • Purushartha – acquiring wealth as duty with a sense of detachment leading to wealth multiplied and not wasted needlessly. • Tenets of Dharma – freedom (Swatantrya), truth(Satya), non-violence (Ahimsa), helping others (Paropakara), charity (Dana), sacrifice (Tyaga) • Belief that all wealth belongs to god and not be used for ones own enjoyment - restrain hyper consumption, increases savings for future generations and preserve environment

    25. Indian worldview • Relational approach with recognition of “organic connectivity” of individual, family, community, society, nation, the worldand finally to entire creation at various levels • All units are interdependent, integrated, self motivated, self propelled and self regulated • Relationship based society with Duties and rights integrated, acts as social security and safety net. • Like family with the individual as its inseparable parttake care of elders, infirm, unemployed, disabled and others • These civilizational resources and social capitalhas a perennial advantage to future socioeconomic growth and power

    26. Indian concept of development

    27. Integrated Human development (IHD) • Sarve Bhavantu Sukhinah,Sarve Santu Niramayaah, Sarve Bhadrani Pasyantu, Maa Kaschid-Dukha-Bhag-Bhavet. - Ensuring “Sukha (happiness) and Hita (well being)” to all • Durable and non-conflicting happiness • Ensuring physical and emotional well being • Increasing satisfaction of life • Expanding freedom and capabilities • Wealth creation with moderate consumption and Savings orientation which is environmentally sustainable • Duties and rights integration • Decentralization through enriching and empowering civilizational infrastructureand social capital (Family, community, society and so on)

    28. Parameters of development

    29. Parameters of IHD

    30. Task Ahead

    31. Our Objectives Currently Development Foundation is engaged in following projects • Synthesizing the Indian worldview and its philosophical basis • Deriving principles to establish a sustainable socio-economic order based on Indian worldview • Creating a new understanding Indian social theory and • Reconstructing Indian Economic Thought In the long run Foundation intends • To define the concept of development based on Indian Ethos • To establish a theory based solutions to current development crisis • To build policy research and advocacy group to promote Indian model of development nationally and internationally

    32. It is a long journey Quest has just begun we need your suggestions and cooperation

    33. Our Team

    34. Thanks