Chapter four outlook on the judicial system
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Chapter Four: Outlook on the judicial system. Introduction Plaintiffs and defendants Probable cause (4th Amendment) Burden of proof ( onus probandi ) Trial by jury (5th Amendment) Examination and cross-examination No self-incrimination (5th Amendment) No double jeopardy (5th Amendment).

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  • Introduction

    • Plaintiffs and defendants

    • Probable cause (4th Amendment)

    • Burden of proof (onus probandi)

    • Trial by jury (5th Amendment)

    • Examination and cross-examination

    • No self-incrimination (5th Amendment)

    • No double jeopardy (5th Amendment)



1 state courts
1-state courts

  • Petty trial courts, small claims courts, conciliation courts, people’s courts (different names in most US states)

    • Hear civil cases between litigants of a same state, no lawyer or attorney required

    • Headed by a Justice of the Peace (often elected), Connecticutt JPs

    • Limited to $7.500 claims

    • On television (arbitration): (The People’s Court)


  • Trial courts (different names)

    • Civil courts, criminal courts

    • General (any type of action) or limited jurisdiction (ex: juvenile court, family court)

    • One judge (or more, often a jury)