An Introduction to Human Geography The Cultural Landscape, 8e James M. Rubenstein Chapter 10 Agriculture PPT by Abe Goldman
Commercial Ag. in MDCs- Issue 3 • 2nd Agricultural Revolution • Mixed crop and livestock systems • Dairy farming • Grain farming • Livestock ranching • Mediterranean agriculture • Commercial gardening and fruit farming • Plantation farming
Commercial Ag. in MDCs- Issue 3 • 2nd Agricultural Revolution • In the 18th century, Great Britain consolidated individually owned strips of farmland around villages to single, large farms owned by individuals. Other countries in Europe did too. • The benefit was greater efficiency. Large farms benefitted from the introduction of machinery, like the seed drill, which regulated planting intervals and improved productivity. • The 4-Field Crop Rotation System developed. In it, the farmer planted a root crop, such as turnips, in one field, a cereal like wheat, barley, or oats in field two, a rest crop in field three, like clover, which helps restore the soil, and another cereal in field four. The “rotation” through this cycle increased productivity. • Cereals provided sustenance for the people. Clover provided grazing and turnips provided food for the animals while hay provided bedding. • Selective Breeding improved the viability of herds.
Commercial Ag. in MDCs- Issue 3 • Mixed crop and livestock systems • The most distinctive part of this type of farming is its integration of crops and livestock. • Most farms of this type devote their land to growing crops, but get most of their income from the sale of animal products, like milk, eggs, and beef. • The crops are fed to animals rather than being consumed directly by humans. • The livestock supply manure to improve soil fertility and to grow more corps. • This type of system spreads work over the entire year- crops are laborious in the spring and fall while livestock maintenance is year-round. • Income is also more balanced as livestock can be sold all year.
Commercial Ag. in MDCs- Issue 3 • Mixed crop and livestock systems
Commercial Ag. in MDCs- Issue 3 • Dairy farming is practiced near large urban areas of the Northeast U.S., Southeast Canada, and Northwest Europe. • It is 20% of the agricultural output in those areas. • Milk must be produced close to market because its perishable. The point beyond which milk can not be transported is known as the milkshed. Beyond it, other dairy products are produced. • Today, modern technology has extended the milkshed line. • Workload and profitability have been problems.
Commercial Ag. in MDCs- Issue 3 • Dairy farming
World Milk Production Fig 10-8: Milk production reflects wealth, culture, and environment. It is usually high in MDCs, especially production per capita, and varies considerably in LDCs.
Dairy Production in the U.S. Fig. 10-9: Milk production is widely dispersed because of its perishability, but cheese production is far more concentrated.
Commercial Ag. in MDCs- Issue 3 • Grain farming-Grain is the seed from grasses, like wheat, corn, oats, barley, rice, and millet. It is the major crop on most farms. • Grain grown on a grain farm is intended for human rather than animal consumption and can be grown in dryer areas. • Commercial grain farmers sell their output to manufacturers who make food products like breakfast cereals and snack-food makers. • Wheat is used to make bread. It is sold, typically, at a higher price than other grains. • It can be stored easily without spoiling and can be transported a long distance, so it can locate far from market. • Winter wheat is grown in Kansas, Colorado, and Oklahoma. Spring wheat is grown in the Dakotas, Montana. • Combine machines reflect the heavy mechanization of this farming. • Wheat is the world’s leading export crop.
Commercial Ag. in MDCs- Issue 3 • Grain farming
World Wheat Production Fig. 10-10: China is the world’s leading wheat producer, but the U.S. and Canada account for about half of world wheat exports.
World Corn (Maize) Production Fig. 10-7: The U.S. and China are the leading producers of corn (maize) in the world. Much of the corn in both countries is used for animal feed.
Commercial Ag. in MDCs- Issue 3 • Livestock ranching- Ranching is the commercial grazing of livestock over an extensive area, especially arid or semi-arid lands where soil is too poor for crops. • Cattle ranching expanded in the U.S. in the 1860s when demand for beef increased. • From Texas, cattle were driven to Kansas along the Chisholm Trail where they boarded trains to the slaughter houses of Chicago where they then moved to the markets of the east. • Ranching generates lower income per area of land, although it has lower operating costs. • Most ranches are large and owned by meat-processing companies rather than individuals. • Ranching is popular in Spain and Portugal and Argentina, southern Brazil and Uruguay. • Sheep ranching is popular in Australia, Middle East, New Zealand, and South Africa.
Commercial Ag. in MDCs- Issue 3 • Livestock ranching
The Chisholm Trail Fig. 10-11: The Chisholm Trail became famous as the main route for cattle drives from Texas to the railheads in Kansas.
Meat Production on Ranches Fig. 10-12: Cattle, sheep, and goats are the main meat animals raised on ranches.
Commercial Ag. in MDCs- Issue 3 • Mediterranean agriculture-primarily exists around the lands of the Mediterranean Sea, but it also exists in California, central Chile, and the Southwestern part of South Africa. • Prevailing sea winds in each location provide moisture and moderate the winter temperatures. Summers are hot and dry, but breezes provide some relief. • Horticulture-the growing of fruits, vegetables, and flowers- and tree crops form the commercial base. Olives and grapes are the most profitable while fruits, vegetables, and grains can be grown in Mediterranean areas, too. • Wine production is common in Mediterranean areas. • The continued availability of water in more arid Mediterranean areas may become an issue.
Commercial Ag. in MDCs- Issue 3 • Mediterranean agriculture
Commercial Ag. in MDCs- Issue 3 • Commercial gardening and fruit farming/Truck Farming is the predominant type of farming in the U.S. Southeast. • The region has a long growing season and humid climate and is accessible to the large markets of New York, Philly, and Washington. • Truck farmers grow apples, asparagus, cherries, lettuce, mushrooms, and tomatoes demanded in developed societies. Some are grow for direct sale to customers others are grown for sale to canners or freezers. • Operations are highly mechanized and they experiment with different types of seeds and fertilizer. Migrant workers keep labor costs down.
Commercial Ag. in MDCs- Issue 3 • Commercial gardening and fruit farming
Commercial Ag. in MDCs- Issue 3 • Plantation farming is found in the tropics and subtropics, especially in Latin America, Africa, and Asia. Although plantations are found in LDC areas, they are owned by companies headed in MDCs and their output is usually sold there, too. • A plantation is a large farm that specializes in one or two crops, like cotton, sugarcane, coffee, rubber, bananas, and tobacco. Cocoa, tea, and palm oil are common, too. • Labor populations are often imported to remote plantation locations. • Crops are processed then shipped to reduce bulk.
Commercial Ag. in MDCs- Issue 3 • Plantation farming