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World Regional Geography April 21, 2010

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World Regional Geography April 21, 2010. Reading : Marston Chapter 10 pages 472-503, 506-508 Goode’s World Atlas pages 189-199, 201-213 (East, Southeast, and South Asia). Takstang Monastery, Bhutan. South Asia. Political Boundaries Physiographic Regions History Empires

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slide1

World Regional Geography

April 21, 2010

Reading:

Marston Chapter 10 pages 472-503, 506-508

Goode’s World Atlas

pages 189-199, 201-213 (East, Southeast,

and South Asia)

Takstang Monastery, Bhutan

slide2

South Asia

  • Political Boundaries
      • Physiographic Regions
  • History
      • Empires
      • British Imperialism
      • Independence & Partition
      • Afghanistan, Nepal, & Bhutan
      • Geopolitical Hotspots
  • Population Characteristics
  • Environmental History
  • and Issues
  • Culture and Ethnicity
  • Economic Development

NASA Satellite Imagery

physiographic regions
Physiographic Regions
  • Peninsular Highlands
    • Deccan Plateau
  • The Mountain Rim
    • Fertile valleys & isolated villages
  • The Plains
    • Most densely populated
    • Major rivers systems
    • Agriculturally productive
  • The Coastal Fringe
    • Includes island nations
    • Number of large cities
slide5

History

  • Mauryan Empire (320 – 125 BC)
    • Emperor Asoka introduced Buddhist principles of vegetarianism and nonviolence.
  • Gupta Empire (320 – 480 AD)
    • Classical period of Hindu development
    • Advancements in science, art, and trade.
slide6

Mughal India (1504-1707)

  • Turks moving east to evade Mongols
  • Islamic rule
  • Further advances in art, science, and architecture.
  • Collapse of Mughal Empire left South Asia open for European colonialism.
british imperialism
British Imperialism
  • 1690s – Europeans establish trading posts.
  • British East India Co.
    • Portuguese forced out
    • 1773 - administrative control of India
  • The Raj – British Rule
    • Emerged in reaction to revolts of 1857.
    • Social reform
    • Infrastructure
    • Universities
    • Plantations

** Nepal and Bhutan remained independent

slide8

History: Independence & Partition

  • British India divided along ethnic and religious lines.
    • India (Hindu)
    • East and West Pakistan (Islamic)
    • Islamic Kashmir joined India.
  • Largest refugee movement ever recorded.
  • Ceylon achieves independence in 1948.
  • The Maldives achieve independence in 1968.
  • East & West Pakistan split in 1971
    • Pakistan
    • Bangladesh
afghanistan nepal bhutan
Afghanistan

Founded in 1747 by Pashtun tribal leaders (Durrani Empire)

19th Century: British influence

1919: Full independence from Britain following 3rd Anglo-Afghan War

Cold War Politics

1978: Communist government reforms, Rural Islamic militants

1979: Soviets invade to support communist government, US supports Afghan mujahideen.

1989: Soviets withdraw

1996: Taliban takes control

Afghanistan, Nepal, & Bhutan
afghanistan nepal bhutan1
Nepal

United in 1768 (formerly 3 separate kingdoms)

1768-1951 Monarchy

1996-2006 Civil War (Maoists rebels)

Bhutan

United in 1907 under a single Monarch

In previous centuries minor Bhutanese fiefdoms repelled Tibetan and Mongol invaders.

Democracy emerged in the last 10 years

Last nation on earth to introduce television (1999).

Afghanistan, Nepal, & Bhutan
festival of tihar nepal
Festival of Tihar (Nepal)

The Festival of Tihar (The festival of Lights) honors the Goddess Laxmi, the goddess of wealth. The second day of the festival is called “Kukar Tihar” (dogs day), during which dogs are honored for the role they play in society.

http://www.nepalhomepage.com/society/festivals/tihar.html

ethnicity nationalism
Ethnicity & Nationalism
  • Areas of Political Tension
    • The Punjab
      • Sikh separatists
    • Kashmir
    • Pakistan
      • Mohajir Quami Movement
    • Bhutan
      • Nepali immigrants
    • Sri Lanka
      • Tamil tigers
    • India
      • Ethnic separatist movements
jammu and kashmir
1947 Independence from Britain

77% Muslim

Maharaja attempted to achieve independence

India helped repel Pakistani invasion

Chinese claim

Border agreements

Afghanistan

Great Britain

Tibet

USSR

Mao did not agree

Current concerns

Nuclear capabilities

Jammu and Kashmir
slide14

Population Density

  • Plains regions
  • Coastal cities
  • Bangladesh
    • Ganges delta
slide15

Population Characteristics

  • 2nd largest regional population – fastest growing
  • 50 cities of 1 million+ population (yet mostly rural)
  • Afghanistan is an outlier
    • Life Expectancy = 44, Infant Mortality = 155/10000
population policies
Population Policies
  • Fear of food and water shortages, mass starvation, and food riots due to:
    • Rural poverty
    • Rapidly growing cities
    • High fertility rates
  • India implemented several unsuccessful population policies beginning in 1952.
    • Relied on punishments
    • People distrustful of family planning programs
  • Newer policies place emphasis on educating women
    • Improvement in status and wealth
    • Linked to lower birth rates
south asian diaspora
South Asian Diaspora
  • 5 to 6 million South Asians live in Europe, Africa, and North America
    • British abolition of slavery led to need for cheap labor.
    • Brain drain
      • Britain, North America
      • Students remaining in U.S. and Europe
slide18

Environmental History & Issues

  • Monsoons
    • Torrential seasonal rainfall (79–158 inches)
    • Flooding, especially in Bangladesh
  • Population Pressure
    • Deforestation
      • Fuel
      • Room for agriculture
    • Overuse of water
  • Pollution
    • Water pollution
      • Poor sanitation
    • Air pollution
      • Major cities
slide19

Culture & Ethnicity

  • Language
    • 1,600 different languages
  • Four Major Families
    • Indo-European
      • India: Hindi
      • Pakistan: Punjabi
      • Bangladesh: Bengali
    • Munda
      • Tribal tongue spoken in remote peninsular hill regions
    • Dravidian
      • Southern India, Sri Lanka
    • Tibeto-Burmese
      • Scattered across the Himalayan region
slide20

Culture & Ethnicity

  • Religion
    • Hinduism
      • India
      • Nepal
    • Islam
      • Afghanistan
      • Pakistan
      • Bangladesh
      • Maldives
    • Buddhism
      • Bhutan
      • Sri Lanka
    • Jain
    • Sikh
culture
Culture
  • The Caste System (India)
    • Kinship Grouping
      • Language, region, and occupation
      • Born into caste
      • Marriage within same caste
      • Norms of interaction between classes
      • Brahmins (religious leaders) at the top
      • Untouchables at the bottom
  • Contemporary Culture
    • Large middle class
    • Bollywood
  • Worldwide impact
    • Mysticism and yoga
    • Food - curry
slide22

Economic Development

  • India: World’s largest democracy
    • 10th largest industrial sector
    • 1992 instituted reforms to open up economy
    • Rapid middle class growth
      • 200 million: well-educated, sophisticated consumers
  • 1992: Structural Economic Reforms
    • Increase in manufacturing
    • Increase in foreign investment
    • Uneven economic development
      • Development in urban areas
      • Rural areas continue to decline
    • Shift in agriculture to lucrative export crops
      • Local foods more scarce and more expensive
poverty and inequality
Poverty and Inequality
  • Over 400 million live in poverty
  • Women and children are more vulnerable
    • Large populations in shantytowns
    • Both rural and urban populations at risk
    • Emerging middle class stands in stark contrast