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Agricultural Entomology. What is Agriculture?. The cultivation of plants/animals for Human Use Includes plants used for : Food (Fruits, vegetables, grains and oil seeds) Animal Feed Fiber products (like wood or cotton). Tarrant Co. Agriculture Factoids.

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Presentation Transcript
what is agriculture
What is Agriculture?
  • The cultivation of plants/animals for Human Use
    • Includes plants used for :
      • Food (Fruits, vegetables, grains and oil seeds)
      • Animal Feed
      • Fiber products (like wood or cotton)
tarrant co agriculture factoids
Tarrant Co. Agriculture Factoids
  • In 1997, There were 1048 farms covering 184,081 acres of land.
  • These farms produce over $40 Million worth of ag. Products each year.
  • Major Tarrant Co. Crops include:
    • Seed Corn
    • Sorghum
    • Wheat
    • Grass and alfalfa hay
what role do insects play in agriculture
What Role Do Insects Play in Agriculture?
  • Harmful insects:
    • Eat parts of plant, causing weakened growth and production
    • Eat parts of plant that we eat, spoiling crop
    • Spread diseases that weaken or kill the plant
beneficial insects
Beneficial Insects:
  • Eat or parasitize harmful insects, keeping their populations in check.
  • Pollinate
  • Produce Marketable Products (honey, wax, silk)
one plant many pests
One Plant, Many Pests
  • Apple Trees:
    • Plum Curculio – Fruit Damage
apple pests
Apple Pests
  • Codling Moth-fruit damage
apple pests8
Apple Pests
  • Apple Maggot Fly – Fruit Damage
apple pests9
Apple Pests
  • Rosy apple aphid – Foliage and Fruit Damage
apple pests10
Apple Pests
  • Flat-Head Apple Tree Borer – Wood Damage
cotton pests
Cotton Pests
  • Cotton Aphid
cotton pests12
Cotton Pests
  • Cotton Bollworm
cotton pests13
Cotton Pests
  • Cotton Leaf Perforator
how do farmers deal with pest insects
How Do Farmers Deal With Pest Insects?
  • Chemical Control
  • Biological Control
  • Integrated Pest Management (IPM)
chemical control
Chemical Control

Pesticides: Synthetic or Natural Chemicals used to interrupt the normal physiological processes of insects.

Timing is important!

Some applications

may make the problem

worse in the long run.

Some pesticides can harm

people, too!

biocontrol
BioControl
  • Natural Enemies: Insects that prey upon or parasitize pest insects, keeping their populations at a minimal level
  • Pheromone Trapping: using chemical signals to trap adults before they can lay eggs
  • Bt transgenic plants – are toxic to Lepidopteran pests.
natural enemies
Natural Enemies
  • Come in 2 categories:
    • Generalists – eat a variety of pest and beneficial species.
    • Specialists – Have specific prey or hosts.
specialists
Specialists
  • Mealybug Destroyer

Predatory Thrips

specialists22
Specialists
  • Parasitoids
transgenic crops
Transgenic Crops
  • Bacillus thuringiensis genes inserted into genome of many different crops.
    • B. thuringiensis is a naturally occuring bacteria that produces a protein that is lethal to Lepidoptera.
    • Bt Plants produce their own pesticide, and aren’t harmful to people.
    • Selection for plants that don’t produce the protein in their pollen reduces the risk to non-target species.
pollinators
Pollinators
  • In order to produce fruit, vegetables, or seed, many plants need insect pollinators.
insect products
Insect Products
  • Apis millifera, The Honey Bee
scale insect products
Scale Insect Products
  • Shellac
  • Cochineal dyes