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Roles of people in information systems. LECTURE 4. Outlines. What is an Information Systems Architecture ? who are the stakeholders in the information systems? What role will each person play in the development and use of information systems? Who are information system users?

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slide2

Outlines

  • What is an Information Systems Architecture?
  • who are the stakeholders in the information systems?
  • What role will each person play in the development and use of information systems?
  • Who are information system users?
  • What is a systems analyst and why are these individuals the key players in the development and implementation of information systems?

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A Framework For Information Systems Architecture

  • What is an Information Systems Architecture?
    • An information systems architecture provides a unifying framework into which various people with different perspectives can organize and view the fundamental building blocks of information systems.
    • Stakeholders have different views of the system and each has something “at stake” in determining the success of the system.
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Lesson Map

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stakeholders in information system
Stakeholders in information system
  • A stakeholderis any person that is interested or affected by an information system.
  • Stakeholders can be technical or nontechnical people.
    • Often include internal workers and external workers or individuals.

Stakeholders: Players in the Systems Game

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stakeholders classification
Stakeholders Classification
  • For information systems, the stakeholders can be classified as:
    • System owners
    • System users
    • Systems analysts & Manager.
    • System designers
    • System builders
    • IT vendors and consultants

Notes:

single individual can play multiple roles in a project.

For example:

      • A person could be both a system owner and system user.
      • Many systems analysts are also system designers and builders.
role of people in information system 1 system owners
Role of people in Informationsystem : 1-System Owners
  • Own the system! Upper levels of Management.
  • System owners – an information system’s sponsor and executive advocate, usually responsible for funding the project of developing, operating, and maintaining the information system.
  • Mainly interested in the business objectives of the system
    • What will the system cost?
    • What strategic benefits will the system bring to our business?
    • How do we measure the value of the system to the business?

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role of people in information system 2 system users
Role of people in Informationsystem : 2-System Users

System users are the people/customer who use or are affected by the information system on a regular basis—capturing, validating, entering, responding to, storing, and exchanging data and information.

- Less concerned with the business and strategic imperatives underpinning IS

  • More concerned with the functionality of the IS
    • Does it let them do what they want to do?
    • How easy is the system to use?
  • Internal & External System Users

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role of people in information system 2 system users1
Role of people in Informationsystem : 2-System Users
  • Internal System Users: Employees of the business that owns the IS
    • Clerical and Service Workers : Day to day transaction processing. Inputting information, processing payments, writing letters ..etc.
    • Knowledge Workers (Technical and professional staff): Business specialists who perform highly skilled and specialized work, e.g. lawyers, accountants, engineers etc. IS provide them with data analysis and information to do their work
    • Supervisors, Middle Managers, Executive Managers : IS provides access to all the information needed to support their problem solving and decision making activities.

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role of people in information system 2 system users2
Role of people in Informationsystem : 2-System Users
  • External System Users: Customers and Other Businesses
    • Customers : Often interact with IS of a business when purchasing products or services. E.g. Aer Lingus, Amazon, tickets.ie
    • Suppliers : Contemporary supply chain management solutions are IS based allowing suppliers to interact with businesses
    • Partners : When companies partner with others to create or improve services or build new products.
    • Employees : Remote access employees such as sales reps
role of people in information system 2 system users3
Role of people in Informationsystem : 2-System Users
  • Remote users- users who are not physically located on the premises but who still requires access to information systems.
  • Mobile users- users whose location is constantly changing but who requires access to information systems from any location

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role of people in information system 3 system designers
Role of people in Information system : 3- System Designers

System designer – a technical specialist who translates system users’ business requirements and constraints into technical solution. She or he designs the computer databases, inputs, outputs, screens, networks, and software that will meet the system users’ requirements.

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role of people in information system 3 system designers1
Role of people in Information system : 3- System Designers
    • Technology Specialists for Information Systems.
    • Translate business requirements into a feasible technical solutions.
  • They design the computer files, databases, inputs, outputs, screens, networks, and programs that will meet the system users’ requirements.

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role of people in information system 4 system builders
Role of people in Information system : 4- System Builders

System builders – a technical specialist who constructs information systems and components based on the design specifications generated by the system designers.

  • Another layer of technology specialists but are different from System Designers in that they construct the IS based on the design specifications!

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role of people in information system 4 system builders1
Role of people in Information system : 4- System Builders
  • construct the information system components based on the design specifications from the system designers. In many cases, the system designer and builder for a component are one and the same.
  • In small organisations the system designers and system builders are often the same but in larger organisations they are not. Why?

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role of people in information system 5 system analysts managers
Role of people in Information system : 5- System Analysts & Managers

Role of managers

  • Perceive business challenges
  • Set organizational strategy
  • Allocate human and financial resources
  • Creative work: New products, services
  • Make Decisions about:
    • Which computer system to be developed?
    • Allocation of IS resources to current projects
    • Must be made by general management with advise from IS department

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role of people in information system 5 system analysts
Role of people in Information system : 5- System Analysts
  • Systems analyst – a specialist who studies the problems and needs of an organization to determine how people, data, processes, and information technology can best accomplish improvements for the business.
    • A programmer/analyst (or analyst/programmer) includes the responsibilities of both the computer programmer and the systems analyst.
    • A business analyst focuses on only the non-technical aspects of systems analysis and design.

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Role of people in Information system : 5- System Analysts & Managers

  • System Analysis: Is the process of understanding in detail what a system should accomplish.
  • The person who works in system analysis field is called an analyst.
  • System Analyst: is an Intermediary between Users, Programmers, Technicians who are playing role in information system. That is why an analyst is characterized as a “facilitator” of the other stakeholders’ participation in systems development.

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Role of people in Information system : 5- System Analysts

  • The Role of the System Analyst
    • For the system owners and users, the analyst typically constructs and validates their views.
    • For the system designers and builders, the analyst (at the very least) ensures that the technical views are consistent and compatible with the business views.

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Role of people in Information system : 5- System Analysts

  • Systems analysts are the key individuals in the systems development process.
  • Develop user requirements & detailed design specifications
  • A systemsanalyststudies the problems and needs of an organization to determine how people, data, processes, communications, and information technology can best accomplish improvements for the business.

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The Systems Analyst as a Problem-Solver

  • By "Problems" that need solving, we mean:
    • Problems, either real or anticipated, that require corrective action
    • Opportunities to improve a situation despite the absence of complaints
    • Directives to change a situation regardless of whether anyone has complained about the current situation

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Role of people in Information system : 5- System Analysts

Examples of typical problems system analysts Typically solve:

  • Customers want to order product anytime of the day.
  • Marketing want to know customer needs better.
  • Management want to analyze financial information more efficiently.

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Skills Needed by the Systems Analyst

  • Working knowledge of information technology
  • Computer programming experience and expertise
  • General business knowledge
  • General problem-solving skills
  • Good interpersonal communication skills
  • Good interpersonal relations skills
  • Flexibility and adaptability
  • Character and ethics

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skills of a successful systems analyst

Role of people in Information system : 5- System Analysts

Skills of a Successful Systems Analyst

1) Analytical skills

Problem solving skills

Analyst’s Approach to Problem Solving :

  • Research and understand the problem
  • Verify benefits of solving problem outweigh the costs
  • Define the requirements for solving the problem
  • Develop a set of possible solutions (alternatives)
  • Decide which solution is best and recommend
  • Define the details of the chosen solution
  • Implement the solution
  • Monitor to ensure desired results

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Role of people in Information system : 5- System Analysts

Skills of a Successful Systems Analyst

2) Technical skills

  • Understanding of potential and limitations of technology.
  • Computer programming experience and expertise.
  • Computers / peripheral devices (hardware).
  • Communication networks and connectivity.
  • Database and database management systems (DBMS).
  • Operating systems.

Systems analyst tools in the technical aspect

  • Software productivity packages
  • Integrated development environments (IDEs) for programming languages
  • CASE tools, testing, documentation support, reverse engineering, configuration management

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Role of people in Information system : 5- System Analysts

Skills of a Successful Systems Analyst

3) Managerial skills

  • Ability to manage projects, resources, risk and change.
  • Understand Business functions performed by organization
  • Know Strategies, plans, traditions, and values of the organization
  • Understand organizational structure
  • Understand organization management techniques

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Role of people in Information system : 5- System Analysts

Skills of a Successful Systems Analyst

4) Interpersonal skills

  • Effective written and oral communication skills (technical & non-technical audiences)
  • Help you work with end user as well as other system analysts and programmers
  • Systems analysts need to understand how people Think ,Learn , React to change ,Communicate and Work (in a variety of jobs and levels).

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Role of people in Information system : 5- System Analysts

Skills of a Successful Systems Analyst

5) Integrity and Ethics skills:

Analyst has access to confidential information, such as salary, an organization’s planned projects, security systems, and so on. Therefore, he/she has to :

  • Must keep information private.
  • plans security in systems to protect confidential information

Any impropriety can ruin an analyst’s career

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More of Roles, Functions, and Careers in IS

  • will provide support for development project in design and implementation stages .e.g :
  • Database Admin: Expertise in design & construction of DB
  • Network specialist: Assists In design & implementation of WAN or LAN Communication.
  • Web Admin: Responsible for development, delivery and integration of web sources.
  • Internal Auditors is needed to review the control of the system
  • Technicians(individual technical roles)

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more of roles functions and careers in is
More of Roles, Functions, and Careers in IS

Primary responsibilities in information system

  • Operations:
    • System operators primarily run and maintain IS equipment
  • Systems development:
    • Focuses on specific development projects and ongoing maintenance and review
  • LAN administrators:
    • Set up and manage the network hardware, software, and security processes
  • Support:
    • Provides user assistance in hardware and software acquisition and use, data administration, user training and assistance, and Web administration
  • Information service units:
    • A miniature IS department attached and directly reporting to a functional area in a large organization
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Other Stakeholders

External Service Provider (ESP) – a systems analyst, system designer, or system builder who sells his or her expertise and experience to other businesses to help those businesses purchase, develop, or integrate their information systems solutions; may be affiliated with a consulting or services organization.

Project Manager – an experienced professional who accepts responsibility for planning, monitoring, and controlling projects with respect to schedule, budget, deliverables, customer satisfaction, technical standards, and system quality.

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example library in ucc prior to it enabled is
Example: Library in UCC prior to IT enabled IS
  • System Owner: UCC Library Managers. Want an IS to reduce costs of running library. Currently very labour intensive; implementation of new IS will remove a great deal of admin work through automation
  • System User: One group of main users are front end desk staff. The process for checking out a book is long, tedious, and laborious. Difficult to find student information in log book, incomplete data entered in log books etc

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example library in ucc prior to it enabled is1
Example: Library in UCC prior to IT enabled IS
  • System Designer: Design technical solution from business requirements. Create a design of database to store information on students and books. Based on the Users issues they include specific details on what data must be entered into the system such as book return date!
  • System Builder: Builds the technical solution using software code, databases, networks and implements security

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example library in ucc prior to it enabled is2
Example: Library in UCC prior to IT enabled IS
  • System Analyst: Conveys business requirements from System Owners and System Users to technical stakeholders such as System Designers and Builders and vice versa! Bridges the Gap!!!
    • E.g. System User to System Analyst: I want a system that will reduce the amount of time to check out a book for a student. Currently we must check a “Students” log book to ensure the student has no fines. We must then enter the book details into a the “Book Checkout” log book.
    • System Analyst to System Designer: Need to store student information and book information in a system. Checking out a book requires examining a students record first for fines so having a quick and easy student information lookup is essential. Also, linking the student information to checked out books must be included in the design

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Think about the stakeholders of an IS in any company. Try and write a sentence on each of the stakeholders and their perspective of the IS??

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