RFID d. miller ● c. ichiki ● l. goetzinger ● r. hrdinsky Presented to the Class of BA 471 Winter 2006 Dr. R.F. Reitsma
the Layout… • RFID Overview • Current RFID Uses • Future of RFID • RFID Controversy ★ point of interest
Overview Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) • an automatic identification method • uses radio frequency • transfers data between a reader and a movable item • Identify • Categorize • Track
Overview… History • 1945 – Leon Theremin • Espionage tool for Soviet government • Retransmitted incident radio waves with audio information • 1939 – Britain • IFF transponder • Used by allies in WWII to identify airplanes as friend or foe • 1973 – Mario Cardullo • Claims U.S. Patent was first true ancestor of modern • 1980s – Use of RFID in tracking and access applications appeared • Identification or location information • Price, color, date of purchase, etc.
Overview… Tags • Contains 2 main parts • silicon chips • antennas • 3 Types • Passive • Semi Passive • Active ★
Overview… Types • Passive • Have no internal power supply • Electrical current inducted in antenna by the incoming signal proves power for integrated circuit in tag to power up and transmit response • Semi Passive • Similar to passive tags, with the addition of a small battery • Battery powers the integrated circuit • Active • Have their own internal power source • Many operate at fixed intervals • Also called beacons (broadcast own signal)
Overview… System • Objects equipped with RFID tag • Tag contains transponder with digital memory chip • Interrogator: an antenna packaged with transceiver and decoder • emits signal activating tag • Reader detects activation signal, decodes the data on the tag’s silicon chip • Data passed to host computer • Application software on host computer processes data • Physical Markup Language (PML)
Current Uses • Animal Tracking • cattle and farm animals • pets...ex. Dan's dog • Supply Chain Management • Wal-Mart industry leader, frozen food and out-of-stock • Electronic Payment • EZ Pass and FasTrak or Subway Oyster card in London ★ Electronic Toll Collection
Current Uses… Case Study • the old way… loose a key • time • $$$ • new practice… • ‘key’ on a wristband • antitheft system • activate within 6in …Security Access and Convenience… Truck Keys
Imagination Time What future products (or services) will use RFID technology? …what are the potentials for RFID… share your WILD examples
Future RFID chips in humans get green light • FDA approved the country’s first RFID chip to be implanted in humans (Oct.2004 -- MSNBC) • Contains patients identity information (blood type, allergies, et cetera) • Used for complex treatments • Applied Digital (maker of the implantable VeriChip for humans) plans to market the chip for $125 (not including implantation) Video of RFID chip implanted into hand
Future… Smart Appliances Washing Machine • Merloni Elettrodomestici (and Italian appliance maker) appliances have RFID readers that enable the machines to communicate with objects • washing machine will read intelligent labels in clothes • a color screen can display messages, like: “This is the first washing [for this pair of jeans] it is advisable to wash them separately” Refrigerator • designed to track each item’s expiry date and display information about its nutritional value Oven / Microwave • automatically set cooking and baking times and temperatures based on instructions from tags ★
Future… Money Exploding €uro and $Dollar • After 3 seconds in the microwave, new $20 bills and Euro bills popped and burned • U.S. $20 bills burned close to Andrew Jackson’s right eye • In the Euros', it burned a hole right where the silver strip runs through the notes.
Future… Money (continue) • Only happened in certain microwaves (usually older or more powerful ones) • The dollars were placed in large stacks • Magnetic ink? Foil strip? • Size of chip
Controversy Medical Regulation Environmental Privacy Religious
Controversy… Medical • Implant • Serious Potential Health Risks RFID for people
Controversy… Regulation • Frequency issues • Discrepancies among Countries • EPCglobal
Controversy… Environmental • Recycling problems -paper -pallet -steel -glass -plastic
Controversy… Privacy • Unaware Purchasers • Linking Merchandise w/ Personal Information • Use in the Workplace – Harrod’s • ID Theft • Profiling • CASPIAN ★
Controversy… Religious Mark of the Beast – Revelation 13:16 …Physical Mark
Q&A What are your questions?