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DNA Structure and Function
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  1. DNA Structure and Function

  2. What is DNA and why is this molecule important? A. DNA – Deoxyribonucleic Acid B. Codes for our traits

  3. Why is the structure of DNA important? Structure must be able to be: • A “blueprint” for our traits • Easily copied

  4. What does DNA look like?

  5. What does DNA look like? 1953 – James Watson and Francis Crick discovered structure of DNA; later won Nobel Prize

  6. What does DNA look like? • “Twisted ladder” or “Spiral Staircase” • Double helix • 2 connected strands wrapped around each other

  7. Sugar + phosphate + base = 1 nucleotide What is DNA made of? A. Sugar  “Deoxyribose” B. Phosphate C. Base

  8. Four different nucleotides • Deoxyribose • Phosphate • Base - Adenine • Deoxyribose • Phosphate • Base - Thymine • Deoxyribose • Phosphate • Base - Cytosine • Deoxyribose • Phosphate • Base - Guanine

  9. DNA is shaped like a ladder RAILS RAILS RUNGS

  10. DNA is shaped like a ladder Nucleotides are connected so: • Rails are alternating sugar - phosphate • Bases are pointed to center

  11. DNA is shaped like a ladder DNA is made of: • Two strands • Strands connect at bases

  12. Basepair rules - Adenine always connects with Thymine • Cytosine always connects with Guanine

  13. Code of Life - Order of bases spells out a code for your traits. • Sequences of DNA which code for a trait are called “genes”. • Change the order of the bases (mutation) and you may have a new trait.

  14. DNA Structure Summary Video – click here

  15. Fun DNA Facts • DNA is 1/10th width of human hair, but DNA in each cell is 6 feet long (over 3 billion nucleotides)! • If all DNA from one person were connected end to end, it would stretch from the Earth to the Sun – 4 times!

  16. Humans and Mice – 85% identical Fun DNA Facts • Every person’s DNA sequence is unique (forensics, paternity tests). • BUT . . . sequence is 99.8% IDENTICAL to any other person! • Humans and Bananas – 50% identical

  17. Fun DNA Facts • Why is the DNA sequence of every living thing have almost the same DNA sequence? • All are made of cells • Cell division • Making nutrients

  18. Fun DNA Facts • Only 2% of our DNA codes for genes. Rest is . . . • “junk DNA” that may come from viruses!

  19. Review Animations • DNA structure review • Base pair review • DNA structure review #2