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Dynamic CDN application for GMPLS networks . Outline Three key points CDN and GMPLS networks Overview of today's CDN service Proposed application: "Dynamic" CDN What advantage does GMPLS bring to this application? Plan for implementation/experimentation on CHEETAH network using Globule CDN

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dynamic cdn application for gmpls networks
Dynamic CDN application for GMPLS networks
  • Outline
    • Three key points
    • CDN and GMPLS networks
      • Overview of today's CDN service
      • Proposed application: "Dynamic" CDN
      • What advantage does GMPLS bring to this application?
      • Plan for implementation/experimentation on CHEETAH network using Globule CDN
    • Automatic private line rate increase application

Malathi Veeraraghavan, Tao Li and Mark McGinley

University of Virginia


Nov. 1, 2007


key point 1
Key point 1
  • Current usage of PDH/SONET circuits and Ethernet virtual connections (E-Line):
      • router-to-router
      • switch-to-switch (ATM or Ethernet)
      • PBX-to-PBX
  • New market: Server-to-server circuits
    • Cluster-to-cluster
    • Or, single server-to-server
key points
Key points
  • Conventional thinking:
    • High-speed links needed for
      • Aggregated traffic
  • New thought:
    • High-speed links needed for
      • Single (large) file transfer
    • Dynamically increase the rate of the bottleneck link to decrease file-transfer delay in lightly (or heavily) loaded environments
file transfer delay
File transfer delay
  • File transfer delay is determined by
    • bottleneck link rate, r = min(r1, r2, r3, r4, r5)
    • packet loss rate on end-to-end path, Ploss
    • round-trip time (RTT)
  • On lightly loaded paths, RTT and Ploss do not matter for large files
  • Only bottleneck link rate, r, matters






tcp ip file transfer delays
TCP/IP file-transfer delays
  • In heavily loaded paths, e.g., if
      • Ploss = 1%
      • RTT = 50ms
    • effective transfer rate  1.8Mbps
    • if r is more than this value, it does not determine effective rate. Ploss and RTT are main factors.
    • if increasing r causes Ploss to decrease, effective rate can be improved.
  • Metro area, e.g.
    • RTT = 1ms, Ploss = 1%
    • effective transfer rate  75Mbps
key point 3 growth rate for pl
Key point 3: Growth rate for PL
  • Projections for Private Line (PL) market by Insight reports
      • Total market (2007): $39,870million
      • Total market (2012): $48,070million
      • CAGR 07-12: 3.81%
  • Private line vs. dynamic circuit services
    • Private line too expensive for server-to-server
      • No aggregation driver for high bandwidth
    • Hence need dynamic circuit services
  • Key points
  • Dynamic CDN and GMPLS networks
    • Overview of today's CDN service
    • Proposed application: "Dynamic" CDN
    • What advantage does GMPLS bring to this application?
    • Plan for implementation/experimentation on CHEETAH network using Globule CDN
  • Automatic private line rate increase application
content delivery network cdn concept
Content Delivery Network (CDN) concept
  • CDN emerged in 1998
    • Aimed at solving the “flash crowd” problem
      • Problem: Sudden surge of web traffic to a particular web site overwhelms the web server
      • Causes:
        • major events, e.g., CNN on 9/11
        • “cold” sites can become “hot”, e.g., slashdot effect
          • slashdot is "News for nerds"
          • if a company is featured on slashdot.org, that company's web site becomes "hot"
  • CDN servers maintain replicas and serve client requests from closest CDN server


cdn concept cont d
CDN concept – cont’d
  • Type of traffic delivered through CDNs
    • Early 1999: static web objects such as documents and images
    • Now (2007):
      • Static web objects as well as dynamic content
      • Live and on-demand video streaming
        • Not just Youtube type of low-resolution video at around 300kbps
        • High Definition (HD) streaming at 5Mbps+ started to appear recently, e.g., www.thehdweb.com
      • Software downloads
      • Gaming


cdn providers
CDN providers

Major CDN providers: Akamai, Limelight

Others: MirrorImage and Inktomi

CDN servers placed in PoPs


25,000+ servers; 1200 PoPs;

900+ Networks; 650+ Cities; 69 Counties;

Daily traffic: 170+ billion hits, 100+ million streams, 3000+ terabytes delivered

LimeLight: 72 PoPs around the world

video a big driver
Video, a big driver!
  • Volume of traffic delivered by CDNs
    • Youtube, carried by CDN provider LimeLight, alone accounts for ~10% of Internet traffic or ~20% of all HTTP traffic according to an Ellacoya’s report published in June/07
      • Traffic data: HTTP (46%) overtook P2P (37%)
        • Likely due to service providers limiting P2P
      • Other traffic: Newsgroups (9%); non-HTTP video streaming: 3%; Gaming: 2%; VoIP: 1%
      • Within HTTP traffic: traditional web page (text&image) 45%; Video streaming: 36%; audio streaming: 5%
    • Conclusion: A significant portion of traffic already carried by CDNs


cdn pricing
CDN pricing
  • CDN’s pricing structure
    • Typically based on a monthly commitment
    • Commitment and corresponding $xx/GB/month (www.cdnpricing.com , Aug. 2007) :
        • 1Tera Byte (TB): High, $2.00/GB/month, Low $1.50/GB/month
        • 10TB: High, $1.20/GB/month, Low $0.89/GB/month
        • 100TB: High, $0.24/GB/month, Low, $0.15/GB/month
        • Above 100TB: It's all over the map. Could be as low as $0.12
    • Implication: CDN expensive for small-to-moderate enterprises


cdn pricing cont d
CDN pricing – cont’d
  • But the trend shows dropping CDN costs
    • Competition fierce
    • Contract length
      • Used to be one year or half year; now month-by-month
    • New player: Level3
      • Willing to provide CDN service attransit cost (cost of high speed Internet access)
      • According to Level3: CDN services have historically been offered at a 20 to 30 percent premium to transit. "We have a unique advantage in this market space, and we intend to take that advantage."
      • CDNs to be absorbed by large ISPs eventually?


cdn s major components
CDN’s major components
  • Origin server: Publish authoritative content
  • Surrogate/replica servers
    • Hold replica; offload requests from origin server
  • Content distribution subsystem
    • Push content to replica servers a priori
    • Or, pull content to replica servers on-demand
  • Request routing subsystem
    • Direct request to “nearby” surrogate server
      • Common techniques: DNS redirection and HTTP redirection
  • Accounting subsystem
    • Monitoring status of service, server and network
      • Help request routing; Collect statistics for billing


how it works
How it works



Origin server at US

Replica server

Replica server


Replica server

Replica server

Client A

Client B

Client C

  • Clients fetch content from nearby server
    • Load on origin server reduced
    • Download speed and reliability improved


request routing dns redirection example
Request routing: DNS redirection example
  • Get http://www.cbs.com
  • Local DNS sends a query
  • www.cbs.com CNAME www.cbs.com.edgesuite.net
  • Query edgesuite.net
  • Eventually returns an IP for a916.g.akamai.net:; TTL: 20s
  • Return replica’s IP to client
  • Get content from the selected server
  • Replica server replies

DNS server

for cbs.com

Replica server

Akamai DNS

server hierarchy







Local DNS




Client at UVA

C:\>Ping www.cbs.com

Pinging a916.g.akamai.net [] with 32 bytes of data:

Reply from bytes=32 time=5ms TTL=58


html page modification http redirection example
HTML page modification + HTTP redirection example

Tanenbaum claims Akamai uses this model

Step 5: does not have to be "after click," e.g., for images

Courtesy: Tanenbaum's Fourth Edition slides from Prentice Hall

content delivery networks
Content Delivery Networks

(a) Original Web page. (b) Same page after transformation.

Courtesy: Tanenbaum's Fourth Edition slides from Prentice Hall

dns redirection
DNS redirection

DNS redirection: the DNS server serving the origin server needs to be modified to provide the IP address of an appropriate CDN server based on the client location

Replica server should ideally have the first page to minimize delay (should have been "pushed"a priori)

For subsequent pages, replica server can "pull" page from origin server

For popular pages, "pull" approach works

one "pull" helps reduce delay for subsequent users

For rarely accessed pages, no load-balancing nor client-experienced delay benefits are gained when pages are pulled from origin server only when client requests arrive

http redirection
HTTP redirection
  • HTTP supports a Location header, which can be included in the response with the URL of the CDN server to which the http request is redirected
  • With HTML page modification:
    • CDN server typically stores image files that do not change as often.
    • These files are likely pushed a priori
cost of using cdn
Cost of using CDN

Bandwidth cost

Variation of traffic distribution

Size of content replicated over surrogate servers

Number of surrogate servers

Reliability and stability of surrogate servers


outline check
Outline check
  • Three key points
  • Dynamic CDN and GMPLS networks
    • Overview of today's CDN service
    • Proposed application: "Dynamic" CDN
    • What advantage does GMPLS bring to this application?
    • Plan for implementation/experimentation on CHEETAH network using Globule CDN
  • Automatic private line rate increase application
dynamic cdn concept
"Dynamic CDN" concept

With pricing in the $1500-2000/month range, is it likely that there are small-to-moderate sized enterprises unable to afford CDN service?

Can the Google business mode of aggregating revenues from small advertisers be used to develop a "dynamic" CDN solution

"pay only when people click on your ad" approach

similarly, "pay for CDN service only when it is used"

need for dynamic cdn
Need for "Dynamic" CDN
  • When would enterprises need to dynamically "recruit" one or more CDN servers?
    • Small- & moderate-sized enterprises
      • Sudden surge: Recruit CDN servers located at a few PoPs when a sudden surge of traffic is seen at their web servers (e.g., slashdot phenomenon)
    • Large-, moderate- and small-sized enterprises
      • For large enterprises that may have a CDN service contract:
        • When a distant (remote) client starts a session from a location where web pages or image files had not been pushed a priori
dynamic cdn example 1
"Dynamic" CDN: Example 1
  • Connecting to hilton.com from a small village in Western Ireland
    • Service was slow on a broadband access link (slower than on my broadband link here in VA)
    • A quick (not thorough) analysis made me think it could be the long-distance server hits to a far-away (perhaps loaded) server that was causing this slow response
    • Hurts business when user leaves without purchase!
dynamic cdn example 2
"Dynamic" CDN: Example 2
  • Connecting to a major university (IIT) web site in India from UVA
    • Very slow service
    • Could have been the access link at IIT
    • Could have been some intermediate link
    • But it also could have been server speed
  • Possible solution
    • If a CDN mirror was recruited at UVA dynamically and a few "popular" web pages from IIT's web site were downloaded during my think time, I would at least have seen faster service for subsequent hits on the same server
globalization and long tail
Globalization and "Long Tail"
  • Globalization:
    • A web server could potentially be accessed from a web client anywhere
    • Makes it hard to push data a priori to the "right" set of CDN mirrors.
    • If pull-based, some prefetching of subsequent pages should occur to improve user's perceived response time
the long tail by chris anderson 2006
"The Long Tail" by Chris Anderson (2006)
  • ECAST: Digital jukebox
    • What % of the 10K albums available on the jukebox sold at least 1 track per quarter? Answer: 98%
  • Apple's iTunes
    • Every one of the 1 million tracks (2004-2005) in iTunes sold at least once
  • Rhapsody: Online music store
    • Even the 100,000th track downloads/month was in the 1000s
  • Netflix
    • 95% of its 25K DVDs (2004-2005) rented at least once a quarter
  • Amazon
    • 98% of top 100K books sold at least once a quarter
  • Conclusion:Why the Future of Business is Selling Less of More
has this affected the 80 20 rule
Has this affected the 80-20 rule?
  • Yes!
  • Rhapsody
    • 25,000th - 100,000th ranked tracks downloaded on average 250 times/month for a total of 22 million downloads/month, resulting in 25% of business
    • 100,000th - 800,000th tracks had total of 16M downloads/month for 15% of the business
    • Each track is downloaded few times, but there are so many of these non-popular songs that the aggregate is large
  • PRX, which sells PBX programming: bottom 80% of products provide 50% sales
implication to cdn
Implication to CDN
  • "Dynamic" CDN: Long-tail aggregator of CDN service
  • Provide low-cost, pay-as-you-use CDN service to small- and moderate-sized enterprises and individuals
push vs pull in current cdn
Push vs. pull in current CDN
  • Literature unclear on whether data is pushed to replica servers or pulled only when a client request comes through
  • Push:
    • Disadvantage for small enterprises - Long tail ignored
  • Pull:
    • Value only for "hits" not niches
    • If bulk of accesses are "niches" then just an extra server involved - more delay and no load-balancing advantage for web server
    • Again, Long tail ignored
dynamic cdn dcdn design
Dynamic CDN (DCDN) design
  • Two proposed methods
    • DNS redirection
      • requires "DNS contract"
      • Example: IIT should give its domain name to CDN server for management
    • HTML page modification + HTTP redirection
dynamic cdn using dns redirection pull prefetching
Dynamic CDN using DNS redirection = Pull + prefetching

4. Pull first page + prefetch




1. through DNS hierarchy

3. Get page

Web Client

2. IP address of replica


IIT’s WebServer (Origin)



DNS lookup should be iterative (not recursive) to avoid intermediate

DNS servers caching data mapping www.iit.edu.in to

VA replica's IP address

dynamic cdn using dns redirection
Dynamic CDN using DNS redirection
  • Drawbacks
    • Need "DNS contract"
    • Delay in serving first page while data is being pulled to replica server
      • Compared to “normal” CDN where data is likely already on the replica (if pushed)
      • After first page, client is well served
    • Need high-speed transfer between replica and backup servers to minimize delay
      • where GMPLS comes in handy
alternative dynamic cdn dcdn design no prior contract required
Alternative Dynamic CDN (DCDN) design: no prior contract required
  • Assumes a backup server to allow for web-page push so that it does not interfere with pulls from origin server (useful for suddenly "hot" servers)

6. Pushes all-or-popular



5. Triggers





1. through DNS hierarchy


6. subsequent GET

2. IP address of origin


5a. for



Web Client

3. Get URL

IIT’s WebServer (origin)

4. First page(html modified based on client address with selected replica server URL)



dynamic version of html page modification http redirection
Dynamic version of html page modification + http redirection
  • HTTP redirection
    • First page’s text received directly from origin server
    • Origin server changes links in first page to refer to replica server
      • Links to images, other pages, refer to closest replica server
    • Need high-speed transfer between replica servers and backup servers to minimize delay on first page’s embedded objects, and subsequent pages
which files to push
Which files to push?

Look at page ranks

An apache web server records all requests in access log files

Log entry example: - - [14/Oct/2007:12:05:21 -0400] "GET /test_100M HTTP/1.0" 200 104857600 "-" "Wget/1.10.2 (Red Hat modified)”

Tools available to collect statistics from log files

e.g., AWstats reports top 10 URLs


example of software needed on a recruitable replica server
Example of software needed on a "recruitable" replica server

ibiblio.org web site states that all these software modules are required to run the ibibio.org web site (Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill)


Apache, Squid, ProFTPD

MySQL, PostgreSQL

Mailman, Icecast, Tomcat

PHP, Perl

OpenSSL, mod_SSL

LVS (Linux Virtual Server)


Nagios, Cricket


outline check39
Outline check
  • Three key points
  • Dynamic CDN and GMPLS networks
    • Overview of today's CDN service
    • Proposed application: "Dynamic" CDN
    • What advantage does GMPLS bring to this application?
    • Plan for implementation/experimentation on CHEETAH network using Globule CDN
  • Automatic private line rate increase application
insight report on private line 2006 2012
Insight report on Private line (2006-2012)
  • Insight research predicts
    • By 2012, video traffic will be 16.6Tb/s while data will be only 3Tb/s
    • In 2007, video is 3.3Tb/s and data 3.0 Tb/s
    • It notes that ASPs that provide CDN service optimized for distribution of video content will need to lease private lines
    • It predicts video will have a "dramatic effect" on private line market.
  • Conclusion: expectation is that private lines will be needed between CDN servers from which video is streamed locally?
    • if so, prime target for dynamic GMPLS circuits.
core gmpls networks
Core GMPLS networks
  • CDN servers are typically located in metro NAPs/PoPs
  • SONET networks extend between NAPs/PoPs
  • With Sycamore SN16000's support for GbE and 10GbE, CDN servers with GbE and 10GbE NICs can be directly connected to a core GMPLS network of SN16000s.
  • Dynamically set up 1-10Gbps circuit from CDN server to CDN server (or backup server)
  • Use dedicated circuit to transfer web-pages files between CDN servers whenever a new CDN server is recruited
  • Replicate as much of the web site as possible
technology trends favor aggressive replication
Technology trends favor aggressive replication

From "Potential Costs and Benefits of Long-term Prefetching for CDNs"byArun Venkataramani, Praveen Yalagandula, Ravi Kokku, Sadia Sharif, Mike Dahlin, Department of Computer Sciences, UT Austin, 21 June 2001:

Storage is cheap

Today: less than $200/100GB

Network prices are falling

Improving at > 100% per year

New technologies

- Lower cost of prefetch traffic [Byers98, Crovella98]

User time is valuable

March 12, 2014

use internet2 s core network s an example
Use Internet2's core network s an example

Yellow nodes: Ciena CD-CI SONET switches

Blue nodes: Juniper T640 IP routers

Courtesy: Rick Summerhill (2006)

two parallel networks
Two parallel networks
  • IP network: Juniper T640 routers interconnected by OC192s
  • Dynamic Circuit Services (DCS) network: Ciena CD-CI nodes with GbE, 10GbE, SONET (OC192) cards
example of how dynamic cdn can be deployed on internet2
Example of how Dynamic CDN can be deployed on Internet2

Deploy CDN servers at some Internet2 PoPs.




1Gbps into IP-routed network: server clients in local regions

10Gbps into DCS network: push between replica servers

why dynamic circuit service
Why Dynamic circuit service?
  • Can create a higher-rate circuit for temporary use between replica servers and backup (origin) servers than possible with
    • private line
    • IP
  • Allows for larger prefetch and faster push
  • Prefetching can be of the first N "hottest" URLs based on recent click history



delay is key in dynamic cdn
Delay is key in dynamic CDN
  • Remote client example (Long Tail)
    • Quick copy of many pages from origin or backup server to remote replica server for fast service
  • Slashdot effect example
    • Quick copy to multiple replica servers
combination of requirements
Combination of requirements
  • Requirements
    • Large file transfer
    • Fast file transfer
  • Higher the speed of the circuit, the better
  • Expensive to get HIGH-SPEED private line service between many replica server-origin/backup server pairs
  • Also IP service is expensive at high speeds
internet2 fee structure
Internet2 fee structure

Started by seeing Internet2 fee structure


1GbE link into Internet2's IP-routed network: $250K annual cost

Two 1GbEs: one into IP-routed and second into DCS netwok: $340K

Corresponding numbers for 10GbE: $480K and $550K

Hence cannot afford to keep 10GbE link into IP-routed network turned up at all times

Recruiting it when needed with dynamic GMPLS circuit setup allows for delay improvement in downloading "whole" web site fast for improved user-perceived response time


attraction of gmpls networks at high speeds
Attraction of GMPLS networks at high speeds

Because high-speed interface cards cost less in SONET switches than in IP routers

For high switching capacity nodes, which are mainly required in the core.

Cost comparison

Per OC192 port on SN16k: $37,500

Per POS OC192 port on 12416 GSR: $225,000

10GbE card on 12416 GSR: $125K


outline check51
Outline check
  • Three key points
  • Dynamic CDN and GMPLS networks
    • Overview of today's CDN service
    • Proposed application: "Dynamic" CDN
    • What advantage does GMPLS bring to this application?
    • Plan for implementation/experimentation on CHEETAH network using Globule CDN
  • Automatic private line rate increase application
open source cdn software globule
Open source CDN software: GLOBULE
  • Globule is a 3rd-party module for Apache
  • Supports DNS and HTTP redirection so requests are served by the closest replica server
  • Open-source allows us to augment Globule to support dynamic CDN
globule model
Globule Model
  • G. Pierre and M. Steen, “Globule: A Collaborative Content Delivery Network”, IEEE Comm Mag., 44(8), pp. 127-133, Aug 2006
changes to support dynamic cdn
Changes to support dynamic CDN
  • Allow content to be pushed to subset of replicas based on anticipated demand and content-provider’s cost concerns
    • Add “knob” to allow content provider balance content pushing vs increased cost
  • Support pre-fetching for remote sessions
    • Move some subset (most popular pages) of a site to the replica server as soon as the first page is accessed
outline check55
Outline check
  • Three key points
  • Dynamic CDN and GMPLS networks
    • Overview of today's CDN service
    • Proposed application: "Dynamic" CDN
    • What advantage does GMPLS bring to this application?
    • Plan for implementation/experimentation on CHEETAH network using Globule CDN
  • Automatic private line rate increase application
build from current day practice
Build from current-day practice
  • What services are Sycamore optical switches used for today?
  • What new network services are being proposed?
  • What applications are enabled by these new services?
  • Who should offer the network services?
  • Who should run the applications?
sycamore equipment
Sycamore equipment
  • Is it correct to say that Sycamore optical switching and network access products are used to provide private line services
    • PDH, SONET private lines
    • L2 Ethernet private lines
  • Network access products:
    • Max circuit rate: OC3? DNX-88
  • Metro rings: Use SN9000?
current private line pl technologies
Current private line (PL) technologies
  • Private line services
    • Ethernet (L2) services: E-Line (EVC), and E-LAN
      • L2 port or VLAN mapped to MPLS virtual circuit, SONET or WDM circuit
    • WDM
    • Virtual private line? IPsec, MPLS VPNs?
uses of private lines
Uses of private lines
  • Private line: originally "tie" lines to connect PBXs in enterprises
  • Dedicated private line (local or LD):
    • Interconnects PBXs
    • Interconnects LANs (Ethernet or ATM LANs)
    • Interconnects IP networks (enterprise routers)
    • Interconnects video-conferencing terminals
    • For storage networks
  • Virtual private lines
    • IPsec,
    • VPN (with MPLS?)
  • Special Access:
    • example: Verizon still needs access to the local facilities for its former MCI customers that are now out of region.
uses of private lines60
Uses of private lines
  • Newer applications
    • Internet access: ISP orders the local loop through ILEC and provides bill for both Internet service and PL access to business customer: hence these PLs are counted as wholesale
    • ISPs purchase PL to interconnect their PoPs (wholesale)
  • Integrated Access:
    • Using IADs (Integrated Access Devices), services such as local, LD, toll-free, LAN/WAN, VPN, video-conferencing IP and Internet access are all integrated on to a single private line; different services are stripped out at carrier's PoP for delivery to appropriate transmission facility
  • Wireless backhaul (cell site platform aggregates T1s from cell towers at basestation) for transfer to central office
market 2007
Market (2007)
  • Local vs. Long Distance
    • Local private line: $27.1 Billion
    • Long distance (LD) private line: $12.8 Billion
  • Wholesale vs. retail
    • Wholesale Local: $14.9 Billion (ISP reselling to business)
    • Retail Local: $12.2 Billion
    • Wholesale LD: $3.4 Billion
    • Retail LD: $9.4 Billion
carriers who offer pl services
Carriers who offer PL services
  • Dominant players: AT&T and Verizon
    • Estimated 74% of long-distance market
    • Over 40% share of local market
    • AT&T offers SONET and Ethernet-over-SONET
  • Other long-haul carriers: Qwest, Sprint, Level3
  • Regional: XO and Time Warner
  • SONET offered by AT&T, Cox, Global crossing, Level3, Qwest, Sprint, Time Warner, Verizon, (3500 SONET rings), XO
  • Optimum Lightpath (Cablevision): Metro Ethernet
attraction of ethernet pl over sonet pl
Attraction of Ethernet PL over SONET PL?
  • Implication: primarily on the client, right?
  • Core network providing the Ethernet PL can still be SONET
  • Ethernet cards are cheaper for routers
    • Cisco 12000 series router
      • 1-port 10GigE card 1310nm SC: $125000 (list price)
      • 1-port OC192c card 1310nm SR: $225,000
      • 1-port OC48 channelized (CHOC): $280,000
    • But to create an Ethernet E-Line (EVC) need MPLS or SONET or WDM, correct?
new services being proposed dynamic circuit services sonet e line
New services being proposed: dynamic circuit services (SONET, E-Line)
  • Steal traffic from
    • private lines, OR
    • IP

Leased lines

Dynamic circuit services


two types of dynamic circuit services dcs
Two types of Dynamic Circuit Services (DCS)

Dynamic circuit services

Leased lines

Coarse Grained Sharing


Fine Grained Sharing



  • Coarse Grained Sharing
    • High-bandwidth circuits, AND
    • "Long" holding times
    • Need Book-Ahead (BA) support in the control-plane (scheduling or advance reservations)
  • Fine Grained Sharing
    • Moderate-BW circuits, and/or
    • Short holding time
    • Immediate-Request (IR) mode sufficient in the control-plane.
new dcs network services applications
New DCS network services & applications

Row/column headings: define service types

Entries in the body cells: applications


router to router circuits
Router-to-router circuits
  • Services (Verizon):
    • Provide network administrator web portal access to explicitly request an increase in leased-line rate
      • e.g., if GbE interface used, but rate capped with VLAN rate-limiting, allow for rate limit to be increased (signaling if leased line realized through SN16000s).
    • Software that reads SNMP MIBs to monitor usage on leased line, and automatically issue signaling request for bandwidth increase
      • Not likely; enterprise admins size their leased lines well.
  • Both ideas: aggregate traffic based increase/decrease requests
per file transfer based rate increases of pl
Per-file transfer based rate increases of PL
  • Even if link is lightly loaded, a single file transfer delay can be reduced by increasing the bandwidth of the bottleneck (lowest-rate) link.
    • e.g., an enterprise has an OC3 WAN access link. Even if this link is lightly loaded, this becomes the max. rate that any single file transfer can enjoy.
  • By dynamically increasing this rate for a few seconds, user can enjoy a higher transfer rate.
  • Applicable to both types of private lines:
    • Business interconnect PL: Local or LD
    • Internet access PL: Local (wholesale - need to retool to retail if BW can be increased for single file transfers)
business interconnect private line
Business interconnect Private Line
  • Local or LD
    • Storage applications require large file transfers.
    • Increase PL capacity just for a single transfer
  • Same idea of using GMPLS to increase PL rates just for a single large file transfer
    • Even though delay need not as critical, no reason not to decrease it. HR time savings important in business
  • For some applications (DR, server replication), use scheduled increase: CGS
  • For others (data movement), any one employee in business may start a data application that triggers an increase: FGS
  • Storage applications:
    • Disaster recovery (DR): backup of critical data
    • Server replication: e.g., of web servers (to allow for quick switchover in case of failures)
internet access pl vs business interconnect pl
Internet access PL vs. business interconnect PL
  • What % of leased line revenues comes from ISP access links and what part from business interconnect?
  • Wholesale local  Internet access: $14.9B
  • Retail local, LD (Wholesale + Retail)  Business interconnect = $25B
business interconnect pl local
Business interconnect PL (local)








Internet access PL

(300 Mbps)




SONET ring

Enterprise user's software signals a request to temporarily

increase its PL bandwidth to the full 1GigE for a single file transfer

internet access metro area
Internet access (metro-area)

One building

ISP's IP router


Internet access PL

(300 Mbps)




SONET ring


Enterprise user signals a request to temporarily

increase its Internet access PL to the full 1GigE

application automatic pl bandwidth modification
Application: Automatic PL bandwidth modification
  • Business interconnect PL
    • Routers within businesses' control
    • Easier to implement
  • Internet access PL
    • Need tools to determine if WAN access link is the bottleneck link on an end-to-end path, and then increase rate.
automatic private line rate increase application design
Automatic private line rate increase application design
  • User's data movement or DR applications are shell-script wrapped with signaling software
  • End-host signaling software contacts a server, which sends UNI messages to SN9000 or SN16000 for call setup to increase PL rate.
  • If successful, it issues commands to routers at the edge of the circuit to remove any rate limits
  • When user application is done, signaling software issues release
  • We have two GSRs, which can be connected into CHEETAH network for testing.
  • Opportunity to increase potential market for GMPLS-enabled SN16000 switches
  • We have the CHEETAH SN16000 based GMPLS testbed on which we can test applications and gain experience with R&E users
  • Choose application(s) carefully
    • with due consideration of business aspects
  • Looking for support:
    • Student HR support to implement these applications for GMPLS networks, and to build usage base
    • Cheetah testbed annual maintenance charges