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OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH HAZARDS. PHYSICAL HAZARD. ERGONOMIC HAZARD. CHEMICAL HAZARD. BIOLOGICAL HAZARD. OBJECTIVES:. Discuss and explain common hazards in the workplace and their effects to workers’ health. Recommend appropriate measures to prevent occupational and work-related illnesses.

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OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH HAZARDS


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    1. OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH HAZARDS BOSH Training 2009 OSHC

    2. PHYSICAL HAZARD ERGONOMIC HAZARD CHEMICAL HAZARD BIOLOGICAL HAZARD BOSH Training 2009 OSHC

    3. OBJECTIVES: • Discuss and explain common hazards in the workplace and their effects to workers’ health. • Recommend appropriate measures to prevent occupational and work-related illnesses. BOSH Training 2009 OSHC

    4. OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH ( ILO/WHO ) • Promote and maintain the highest degree of physical, mental & social well-being of workers of all occupations • Preventworkers from departures due to health caused by their working conditions • Protect workers in their working environment from hazards and risks usually causing adverse health effects • Place & maintain a worker in an occupational environment adapted to his/her physiological ability BOSH Training 2009 OSHC

    5. HAZARD AND RISK • HAZARD - any source of potential damage, harm or adverse health effects on something or someone under certain conditions at work. • RISK - the chance or probability that a person will be harmed or experience an adverse health effect if exposed to a hazard. BOSH Training 2009 OSHC

    6. CHEMICAL HAZARDS BOSH Training 2009 OSHC

    7. Inhalation Skin Contact Ingestion Chemical Hazards Routes of entry into the body BOSH Training 2009 OSHC

    8. Chemical Hazards Routes of excretion Respiratory (exhalation) Skin (sweat, hair, nails) Gastro-intestinal (feces) Renal (urine) BOSH Training 2009 OSHC

    9. Chemical Hazards Measures of concentration of toxic substances • Threshold Limit Value (TLV)- average concentration of an airborne substance to which most workers could be safely exposed over an eight-hour working day or forty-hour working week throughout a working lifetime • Maximal Allowable Concentration (MAC)- peak or maximum concentration of an airborne to which most workers could be safely exposed. BOSH Training 2009 OSHC

    10. Chemical Hazards Classification of Toxic Effects • Local toxicity- occurs at the site of chemical contact • Systemic toxicity- occurs distant from point of contact, may involve many organ systems • Acute toxicity-occurs almost immediately (hours/days) after an exposure • Chronic toxicity-represents cumulative damage to specific organ systems; occurs many months or years to have recognizable clinical disease BOSH Training 2009 OSHC

    11. Chemical Hazards Health Effects • Renal Diseases • Respiratory Diseases • Skin Diseases • Hematologic Diseases • Cardiovascular Diseases • Neurologic Diseases • Carcinogenic • Teratogenic BOSH Training 2009 OSHC

    12. Chemical Hazards BOSH Training 2009 OSHC

    13. Chemical Hazards BOSH Training 2009 OSHC

    14. Chemical Hazards BOSH Training 2009 OSHC

    15. PHYSICAL HAZARDS BOSH Training 2009 OSHC

    16. Physical Hazards • Noise • Vibration • Extreme Temperature • Illumination • Radiation BOSH Training 2009 OSHC

    17. NOISE BOSH Training 2009 OSHC

    18. Ear Anatomy BOSH Training 2009 OSHC

    19. NOISE Types of Noise-Induced Hearing Loss • Temporary Threshold Shift (auditory fatigue) • temporary loss of hearing acuity after exposure to loud noise • recovery within 16-48 hrs • Permanent Threshold Shift • irreversible loss of hearing BOSH Training 2009 OSHC

    20. NOISE Early Signs of Hearing Loss • Difficulty in understanding spoken words in a noisy environment • Need to be near or look at the person speaking to help understand words • Familiar sounds are muffled • Complaints that people do not speak clearly • Ringing noises in the ears (tinnitus) BOSH Training 2009 OSHC

    21. Other Harmful Effects of Noise • Hypertension • Hyperacidity • Palpitations • Disturbs relaxation and sleep BOSH Training 2009 OSHC

    22. VIBRATION BOSH Training 2009 OSHC

    23. VIBRATION • Physical factor which affects man by transmission of mechanical energy from oscillating sources • Types • Segmental vibration • Whole body vibration BOSH Training 2009 OSHC

    24. Segmental Vibration: • Health Effects: • Hand Arm Vibration Syndrome (HAVS) • tingling, numbness, blanching of fingers • pain BOSH Training 2009 OSHC

    25. Whole Body Vibration: • Health effects: • Fatigue • Irritability • Headache • Disorders of the spine BOSH Training 2009 OSHC

    26. EXTREME TEMPERATURE BOSH Training 2009 OSHC

    27. EXTREME TEMPERATURE • Sources of heat stress: • Natural Conditions • Hot work processes related to furnaces, kilns, boilers and smelting BOSH Training 2009 OSHC

    28. Health Effects of Heat Stress BOSH Training 2009 OSHC

    29. EXTREME TEMPERATURE • Sources of Cold Environment: • Ice plants and freezers in the food industry BOSH Training 2009 OSHC

    30. Health Effects of Cold Temperature • Frostbite:reddening of skin, localized burning pain and numbness. Fingers, toes, cheeks, nose, ears are most susceptible. • trench foot or immersion foot: numbness, pain, cramps, ulceration and gangrene. BOSH Training 2009 OSHC

    31. INADEQUATE ILLUMINATION BOSH Training 2009 OSHC

    32. Inadequate Illumination Health Effects • Visual Fatigue • Double Vision • Headaches • Painful irritation • Lacrimation • Conjunctivitis BOSH Training 2009 OSHC

    33. RADIATION BOSH Training 2009 OSHC

    34. RADIATION BOSH Training 2009 OSHC

    35. BIOLOGICAL HAZARDS BOSH Training 2009 OSHC

    36. VIRUSES FUNGI PARASITES BACTERIA BIOLOGICAL HAZARDS BOSH Training 2009 OSHC

    37. Selected Infectious Diseases and Occupations BOSH Training 2009 OSHC

    38. Selected Infectious Diseases and Occupations BOSH Training 2009 OSHC

    39. Selected Infectious Diseases and Occupations BOSH Training 2009 OSHC

    40. ERGONOMIC HAZARDS BOSH Training 2009 OSHC

    41. ERGONOMICS Human Biological Science + Engineering Science ____________________________________ MAXIMUM SATISFACTION AND INCREASE PRODUCTIVITY “ fitting the job to the worker” BOSH Training 2009 OSHC

    42. the task (job content & context) the organization the tool the environment the workstation ERGONOMICS BOSH Training 2009 OSHC

    43. ERGONOMICS • Goal • to reduce work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) developed by workers • MSDs are injuries and illnesses that affect muscles, nerves, tendons, ligaments, joints or spinal discs. BOSH Training 2009 OSHC

    44. ERGONOMICS Common Symptoms of MSDs • Painful joints • Pain, tingling, numbness in hands, wrists, forearms, shoulders, knees and feet • Shooting or stubbing pains • Swelling or inflammation BOSH Training 2009 OSHC

    45. ERGONOMICS Common Symptoms of MSDs • Fingers or toes turning white • Back or neck pain • Stiffness BOSH Training 2009 OSHC

    46. Static posture Risk Factor: ERGONOMICS BOSH Training 2009 OSHC

    47. Forceful exertion Risk Factor: ERGONOMICS BOSH Training 2009 OSHC

    48. Repetitive movement Risk Factor: ERGONOMICS BOSH Training 2009 OSHC

    49. Extreme range of motion Risk Factor: ERGONOMICS BOSH Training 2009 OSHC

    50. Awkward posture Risk Factor: ERGONOMICS BOSH Training 2009 OSHC