basic information on hinari agora oare research4life and the internet module 1 1 n.
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Basic Information on HINARI, AGORA, OARE (Research4Life) and the Internet (module 1.1). MODULE 1.1 Basic Information on HINARI, AGORA and OARE and the Internet. Instructions - This part of the:

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module 1 1 basic information on hinari agora and oare and the internet
MODULE 1.1 Basic Information on HINARI, AGORA and OARE and the Internet
  • Instructions - This part of the:
  • course is a PowerPoint demonstration intended to introduce you to Basic Internet Concepts.
  • module is off-line and is intended as an information resource for reference use.
table of contents
Table of Contents
  • Background – HINARI, AGORA, OARE, aRDi
  • Basic Internet Concepts
  • Structure of the Internet
  • Common Internet Protocols
  • Technical Requirements for HINARI
objectives of research4life r4l
Objectives of Research4Life (R4L)
  • To connect developing world researchers with the international scientific community
  • To reduce the ‘publishing gap’ and improve the quality of locally produced articles and journals
  • Ultimately – improve health, food security and environment in relation to Millennium Development Goals of 2015
hinari health a ccess to r esearch programme
HINARI (HealthAccess to Research programme)
  • Online portal to publishers
  • Coordinated by WHO/Yale University, USA
  • Free/Low cost to >100 countries/territories
  • Over 8500 e-journals, 7000 e-books and other resources / 150 publishers
  • Medicine and health
  • 5000+ institutions registered
  • Data: 2012 02
agora a ccess to g lobal o nline r esearch in a griculture
AGORA(Access to Global Online Research in Agriculture)
  • Online portal to publishers
  • Coordinated by FAO/Cornell University, USA
  • Free/Low cost to >100 countries/territories
  • 2500 journals / 75 publishers
  • Agriculture, food fisheries and related sciences
  • 2000 institutions registered
  • Data: 2012 02
oare o nline a ccess to r esearch in the e nvironment
OARE (Online Access to Research in the Environment)
  • Online portal to access environmental information
  • Coordinated by UNEP/Yale University
  • Free/Low cost to >100 countries/territories
  • Over 4150 journals / 75 publishers and scholarly societies
  • Environment and related sciences
  • 1800 institutions registered
  • Data: 2012 02
ardi a ccess to r esearch for d evelopment and i nnovation
aRDi(Access to Research for Development and Innovation)
  • Launched in July 2009, aRDi is a program developed by the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) and its publishing partners in the fields of science and technology
  • For developing countries – to support global knowledge economy and creation/development of new solutions to technical challenges on local and global level
  • Became R4L partner program - July 2011
  • Eligible institutions are patent offices and academic and research institutions
  • 12 publishers; access to >200 journals for 107 countries
eligibility 01 2012
Eligibility (01 2012)
  • Institutions in countries with GNI (gross national income) per capita below $1600 or HDI (human development index) less than 0.63 are eligible for free access (Band 1/Group A)
  • Institutions in countries with GNI per capita between $1601-$5000 or HDI less than 0.67 pay a fee of $1000 per year (Band 2/Group B)
      • Some publishers opt out of this option and do not allow access to their journals
  • For details, see
primary target audiences
Primary Target Audiences
  • Eligible categories of institutions are:
  • national universities
  • research institutes
  • professional schools (medicine, nursing, pharmacy, public health, dentistry)
  • teaching hospitals
  • government: ministries and agencies
  • national medical libraries
  • locally based non-governmental agencies
  • All permanent and visiting faculty, staff members and students are entitled to access and can obtain the institutional User Name and Password.
Principal Publishers

Elsevier Science




Taylor & Francis

Lippincott/Williams & Wilkins


Oxford University Press

Nature Publishing

Other science/technical/ medical publishers

Program Partners

World Health Organization - WHO

Food and Agriculture Org. – FAO

United Nations Environment Programme – UNEP

Yale University Library

Mann Library/Cornell University

International Association of Scientific, Technical and Medical Publishers – STM

Information Training and Outreach Centre for Africa

National Library of Medicine


Librarians Without Borders®/MLA

what is the internet
What is the Internet?
  • Publicly accessible network of interconnected computers which communicate via software protocol standards
  • Easily accessed (via modem and phone line, ISDN, direct cable landline, satellite)
  • Expanding global infrastructure; is pan-national (no central control)
  • Regarding information delivery, the most significant change since the development of the printing press in the 15th century!

Internet World Statistics 30 June 2010

internet growth
Internet Growth
  • Exponential growth for the last few years
  • In 1993, 90,000 people used the Internet; in 2002, 600 million people used the Internet; in 2007, over 1 billion people used the Internet
  • Hardware costs are decreasing year on year
  • While the recent increase of usage in developing countries has been significant, the overall % of users is significantly less than industrialized countries.
internet architecture
Internet Architecture
  • Web is based on a client/server architecture using
  • HTTP: Hypertext Transfer Protocol
  • Set of rules for communication between Web clients and servers
  • Code is located inside <……>
  • <a href=“”>HINARI</a> tells the web browser to open the HINARI website

Give me file x

Computer on the Internet holding

information - remote “server”

Here it is

Desktop computer - “client”

server client interface
Server/Client Interface


Hardware + Software




Hardware + Software

internet services
Internet Services
  • The World Wide Web or a system of interlinked hypertext documents accessed via the Internet (multiple delivery options)
  • Search tools via WWW (search engines, databases, gateways and portals)
  • Communication (E-mail)
  • Retrieval/information transfer (File Transfer Protocol - FTP)
the w orld w ide w eb
The World-Wide Web
  • WWW, web, W3, World-Wide Web
  • Often what people mean by the Internet
  • Based on hypertext - the ability to link text and documents dynamically and interactively
  • Uses hypertext markup language - HTML
  • The WWW is a global standard
  • Can use text, graphics, sound and video
  • Anyone can link to and make use of the web

Delivery: Dial Up Connection


  • Speed of connection
    • modem speed: usually 56 kilobytes per second
    • dial into Internet Service Provider (ISP)
    • quality of telephone line

International Gateway Link

Phone Line


ISP Server

Client Computer

With Modem

  • Speed of line
  • Quality of line

Delivery: Broadband Connection


Leased Line

Permanent Connection


LAN Server

  • Speed of line
  • Quality of line

Local Area


• Speed of connection

– LAN Server speed

– Bandwidth (minimally 256kbts/s to 1.0 Mbit/s)

– Mode of link (radio, leased line, satellite)

LAphone line


Access Speed Issues (Bandwidth)

  • Cables vary in speed and amount of information they can carry (bandwidth)
  • Sometimes cables are slow in carrying information or lose the signal, especially if
    • information must cross long distances
    • too much traffic on cable
    • capacity (bandwidth) is low long distances

too much traffic on the cable

cable capacity, or bandwidth, is low

internet requirements for hinari
Internet Requirements for HINARI
  • 128 kbps, local area network (LAN), or cable connection required.
  • A hard-wired full-time Internet connection (T1 or better) enables the fastest downloads.
  • Satellite or network connections, though slower, are also adequate.
  • Web Browser - Internet Explorer version 4.0 or Mozilla Firefox 1.0
web browser
Web Browser
  • Browser is the software that is used to view the Web
  • Standard browser features
    • scrolling, back, forward, stop, home, refresh
  • Navigation - in built features
    • back, forward, home, go to, yes, no
  • Search on a single web page
  • Multiple Web browser windows
  • Besides Internet Explorer, there are other options
browser customization
Browser Customization
  • Toolbar options
  • Link to a specific homepage
  • Using the right click mouse button
  • Using favorites or bookmarks
    • Adding
    • Organizing
    • Editing
adobe reader for pdfs
Adobe Reader for PDFs
  • You will need an Adobe Reader to view journal articles in PDF (Portable Document Format).
  • Adobe Reader can be downloaded for FREE from the Adobe web site:
  • You will need Java to view some articles especially in HINARI
  • Java can be downloaded for FREE from the following website:
the internet address or url
The Internet Address or URL

This page is being viewed with an Internet Browser. Browsers allow computers to read Hyper Text Mark-up Language OR HTML.

In this example we have entered the URL - - for the HINARI website and clicked on the ENTER or RETURN key.

hypertext links
Hypertext links

Links to other pages are usually underlined or in another colour of text.

forward and back navigation buttons
Forward and back navigation buttons

The arrow buttons on the tool bar allow users to move Back and Forward to pages within the website.

home page button
Home page button

The House icon on the tool bar will take you back to the browser’s default Home Page.

This is the end of Module 1.1

There is a Work Book to accompany this part of the module. The workbook will take you through a live session covering the topics included in this demonstration with working examples.

Updated 2011 08