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The endocrine system

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  1. The endocrine system

  2. Types of glands • 1. exocrine glands: duct glands • Ex) tear glands, sweat glands “exo”: out duct: tube-like structure

  3. 2. endocrine glands: ductless glands “endo” : within

  4. 3. dual glands: function as both an endocrine & an exocrine gland • Ex) pancreases • -exocrine: digestion enzyme • -endocrine: insulin, glucagon

  5. Hormones • Hormones – chemicals secreted in one area of the body which affect responses in other areas. Hormones have specific shapes that fit with receptors on the surface of the structure they are gong to influence.

  6. Hormones interact and exert control on metabolic activities such as reproduction and development, including metamorphosis.

  7. metamorphosis • A change in form in development found in many insects and amphibians.

  8. Hypothalamus • A small region of the brain that produces hormones influencing the pituitary gland

  9. Hypothalamus Some specific functions: • Regulates posterior pituitary through direct sensory-nervous control (ex. Water balance, body temperature, hunger) • Regulates the pituitary indirectly through releasing factors. (chemicals)


  11. B. Endocrine system • Pituitary gland: nicknamed the “Master gland” --secretes numerous hormones Some hormones produced: • Growth stimulating hormone -- stimulates the elongation of long bones

  12. (b) Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) --stimulates activity in the ovaries and testes

  13. (c ) Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) --stimulates the thyroid gland to secrete thyroxin

  14. (d) LH (luteinizing hormone) -- brings about the change of the follicle to the corpus luteum (yellow body) -- this corpus luteum thus secretes the hormone progesterone – preparing the embryo for implantation in the uterus and thus pregnancy

  15. video •

  16. 2. Thyroid gland Large gland near the lower part of the larynx where it joints the trachea

  17. 2. Thyroid gland con’t --functions to maintain body metabolism --produces the hormone THYROXIN which is mostly iodine based (controls the rate of metabolism and is responsible for normal physical and mental development.)

  18. 3. Parathyroid glands • Patches of pea shaped tissue embedded in the thyroid gland

  19. 3. Parathyroid glands --produces the hormone PARATHORMONE (controls the metabolism of calcium – needed for nervous function, strong bones and teeth, and blood clotting.)

  20. 4. Adrenal glands • Two small glands located at the top of each kidney -- produce adrenalin File:Adrenal_gland_(PSF).png

  21. 4. Adrenal glands con’t • Adrenalin – “Fight or flight hormone” --secreted during times of emergency --increases the blood sugar level and accelerates heart and breathing rates

  22. 4. Adrenal glands con’t • Cortisol –promotes proper cartilage composition –stimulated carbohydrate, protein, and lipid metabolism (cortisone is a man-made cortisol used in the treatment of joint disorders)

  23. 5. Islets of Langerhans (pancreas) • small groups of cells located in the pancreas

  24. 5. Islets of Langerhans (pancreas) con’t • Glucagon: stimulates the release of stored animal starch in the liver (glycogen) into the blood as glucose when needed

  25. 5. Islets of Langerhans (pancreas) con’t • Insulin: has 2 basic roles: • Facilitates the entrance of glucose into the cells • Lowers blood sugar levels by promoting the movement of glucose from the blood into the muscles in liver (for conversion into glycogen)


  27. 6. Testes Testes --male sex glands: secrete testosterone. testosterone: influences the development of male secondary sex characteristics.

  28. 7. Ovaries Ovaries--female sex glands: secrete estrogen. estrogen: influences the development of female secondary sex characteristics.

  29. (Some Endocrine Malfunctions) (a) goiter: enlargement of the thyroid gland usually resulting from the gland’s inability to manufacture thyroxin. --often associated with an iodine deficiency in the diet. (WebMD, LLC., 2011) (Iodinenetwork, 2013)

  30. Iodized salt (Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., 2013)

  31. (Some Endocrine Malfunctions) con’t (b) diabetes: a disorder characterized by an insulin deficiency which results in an elevated blood sugar level. Number (in Millions) of Civilian, Noninstitutionalized Persons with Diagnosed Diabetes, United States, 1980–2010 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011)

  32. Ms. Kim’s mom has diabetes. • Used to love sweets. • Exercises everyday. • Takes medicine everyday. • My brother and I always keep her from eating sweets.

  33. (7 Diabetes Symptoms) 1. Craving for water 2. Craving for sweets 3. Frequent urination 4. Heart and circulation 5. Sudden changes in vision problems 6. Sudden changes in weight 7. Frequent shifts in body energy (intense fatigue)

  34. Positive/Negative Feedback --also called biofeedback. --a type of organism self regulation --operates on the principle that the level of one hormone in the blood inhibits or stimulates the production of another hormone (or substance.)

  35. Positive vs. Negative

  36. Examples 1. Positive feedback • Estrogen luteinizing hormone: ovulation 2. Negative feedback • Thyroid and Thyroid stimulating hormones • Insulin and glucagon

  37. Demo • Feedback mechanism (A spoonful of medicine, n.d.)

  38. Comparison of nervous and endocrine systems

  39. Video •


  41. References A spoonful of medicine. (n.d.). [Illustration]. A little blog about our human physiological essence. Retrieved from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011). [Graph]. Number (in millions) of civilian, noninstitutionalized persons with diagnosed diabetes, United States, 1980–2010. Retrieved from Iodinenetwork. (2013). [Photograph]. Iodine nutrition. Retrieved from Rich, V. (2012). [Illustration]. Diabetes information. Symptoms of diabetes. Retrieved from Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. (2013). [Photograph]. Morton Iodized Salt, 26 oz. Retrieved from WebMD, LLC. (2011). [Illustration]. Information and Resources. Goiter. Retrieved from