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Chapter Seven Nutrition and Your Fitness
Nutrition and Achieving High Level Fitness The foods you eat form the foundation of your health & fitness. Food provides: • Fuel (energy) • Stamina and vigor for daily activities • Basis for sound, healthy skin, teeth, hair, muscles and bones
Six Essential Nutrients • Carbohydrates • Protein • Fats • Minerals • Vitamins • Water
Proteins 10-15% 40-60 grams/day Carbohydrates 45-65% 200 grams/day Fats 20-35% 40-73 grams/day Mostly from complex carbs 10% saturated <20 grams Only 10% from simple carbs
Carbohydrates • Function: Major source of energy, supplies fiber • Food Sources: Fruits, vegetables, grains • Recommended Percentage in Diet: 45-65% mostly from complex carbohydrates rather than simple carbohydrates
Proteins • Function: Important for growth, maintenance, repair of tissue • Food Sources: Chicken, fish, meat, low-fat dairy products, eggs, dried peas, beans • Recommended Percentage in Diet: 10-35%
Fats • Function: Source of stored energy, provide and carry the fat soluble vitamins (ADEK) • Food Sources: • Monounsaturated fat - olive oil, canola oil • Polyunsaturated fat - safflower oil, corn oil, liquid margarines • Saturated fat - meat, butter, milk, solid shortenings • Trans Fat - cookies, crackers, French fries, donuts • Recommended Percentage in Diet: 20-35% - trans fats and saturated fats combined should be less than 10% of the total
Cholesterol • A waxy, fatty-like material manufactured in the body and used by the body in chemical processes. • Found in foods of animal origin. • Excess cholesterol is deposited on the lining of the arteries. • Narrowing of arteries can lead to cardiovascular problems.
Cholesterol Two Types of Cholesterol • High Density Lipoproteins - HDL • Good cholesterol, picks up extra cholesterol and eliminates it from the body • Low Density Lipoproteins - LDL • Bad cholesterol, contributes to clogging of arteries by depositing the extra cholesterol on the lining of the arteries
Fiber • Structural part of plants which is neither digested nor absorbed by the body • Serves as an intestinal “house cleaner” • Best sources are fruits, vegetables, grains, and cereals. • Fiber is not found in animal foods.
Sugar Intake • Eating honey, sugar, soft drinks, candy bars or any sweets does not provide quick energy. • To maintain a consistent energy level, eat a diet high in complex carbohydrates (grains, cereals, vegetables)
Minerals • Function: Important in activating numerous reactions within the body • Food Sources: Varies with the specific minerals - a variety of foods is necessary • Recommended Percentage in Diet: Adequate intake indicated by the RDA
Vitamins • Function: Aid in absorbing and using the nutrients. Each vitamin has one or more specific functions in the body. • Food Sources: Varies with the specific vitamins - a variety of foods is necessary • Recommended Percentage in Diet: Adequate intake indicated by the RDA
Vitamin Supplements • Taking vitamin supplements cannot compensate for a diet that is deficient in nutrients. • Those who may need a vitamin supplement: • Dieters who take in less than 1,200 calories • People with food allergies who cannot eat certain foods • Vegetarians who do not eat animal foods • Heavy smokers or heavy drinkers
Water • Function: Provides a medium within the cells in which the chemical reaction of the cells takes place; helps regulate body temperature, digest food, excretion, glandular secretion • Food Sources: Beverages and liquids in food • Recommended Percentage in Diet: Two to three quarts daily
Dietary Reference Intake • Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) - amount necessary to meet nutritional needs • Adequate Intake (AI) - guideline used to help set dietary goals • Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) - amount needed for special groups • Tolerable Upper Level Intake (UL) - the safe upper limits for nutrients
Nutrition & Your Fitness Gain an understanding of nutrition basics so that you can develop a nutrition plan that will contribute to lifelong fitness and wellness. Return to Chapter Menu