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Chapter 9 Lesson 3 . Times of Conflict . objectives. Identify events that caused the Peloponnesian War . Compare and contrast the roles of Athens and Sparta during the Peloponnesian War. Explain how the government of Athens changed as a result of the Peloponnesian War. Vocabulary.

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chapter 9 lesson 3

Chapter 9 Lesson 3

Times of Conflict

objectives
objectives
  • Identify events that caused the Peloponnesian War.
  • Compare and contrast the roles of Athens and Sparta during the Peloponnesian War.
  • Explain how the government of Athens changed as a result of the Peloponnesian War.
vocabulary
Vocabulary
  • Demagogue – weak leaders who were popular because they told people what they wanted to hear, even though it was not true
  • Dictatorship – government with absolute power
  • Mercenary – soldiers willing to fight for anyone who pays them
the peloponnesian war begins
The Peloponnesian War Begins
  • Leaders of Sparta feared Athens would gain too much power.
  • The rivalry between the powerful city-states of Athens and Sparta led to battles known as the Peloponnesian War.
  • Pericles invested tribute money into the navy which alarmed Spartans.
  • Fought for 15 years (460 BC- 445 BC)
  • 445 BC both sides got tired of fighting; signed Thirty Years’ Peace Treaty
renewed fighting 431 bc
Renewed Fighting 431 BC
  • 14 years after Sparta and Athens agreed on Thirty Years’ Peace, war broke out again
  • A lengthy war between Sparta and Athens for 27 years resulted in the end of the Golden Age of Athens
  • Athens surrendered to Sparta in 404 BC
  • Plague spread throughout Athens killing many Athenians including Pericles
after pericles death
After Pericles Death
  • Athens went through a series of different leaders
  • Demagogues
  • In 405 BC the Spartans surprised the Athenian fleet near the Hellespont and destroyed it
the thirty tyrants
The Thirty Tyrants
  • Spartans broke up the Athenian Empire and took control of the Athenian government
  • Instead of democratic rule, Athens was ruled by a dictatorial oligarchy, known as the Thirty Tyrants
  • Sparta changed Athens by changing it from a democracy to a dictatorship
athens regains independence
Athens Regains Independence
  • The Thirty Tyrants were overthrown, and the new leaders tried to restore Athenian democracy
  • Since many people still wanted strong leaders, Athenian democracy never fully recovered
competition among city states
Competition Among City-States
  • Competition and conflict continued among Greek city-states
  • Sparta and Athens were weakened from years of fighting
  • As a result, Thebes gained power on the mainland
summary
Summary
  • During Athens’s Golden Age, Sparta and Athens were the two most powerful city-states
  • Their rivalry led to the Peloponnesian War, which ended the Golden Age of Athens
  • Sparta’s victory in the war marked the beginning of a period of conflict and competition among the city-states
  • This caused the Greek city-states to become unstable
reading check questions
Reading Check Questions
  • What was the effect of Athens’s desire for more power?
    • Tension with Sparta, which led to the Peloponnesian War.
  • What events helped cause Athen’s defeat in the Peloponnesian War?
    • Sparta’s attack on Attica, a plague in Athens, the build up of Sparta’s army
  • What change did the Spartans make to Athen’s form of government?
    • They changed it from democracy to dictatorship
  • What changes in governing did Athens experience after the Three Thousand regained control of the city-state?
    • The Athenians set out about restoring democracy
  • After the Peloponnesian War, why did Athens, Corinth, and Argos form the Corinthian Alliance?
    • To defeat Sparta