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Chapter 10. Mexico. I. Sovereignty, Authority, & Power. Legitimacy Viceroy – Governor appointed by Spanish king during colonial period Centralized, authoritarian rule with virtually no participation by the indigenous population. A. Legitimacy Continued.

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    1. Chapter 10 Mexico

    2. I.Sovereignty, Authority, & Power • Legitimacy • Viceroy – Governor appointed by Spanish king during colonial period • Centralized, authoritarian rule with virtually no participation by the indigenous population

    3. A. Legitimacy Continued • Revolution of 1910-1917 – Mexicans have admired revolutionary leaders throughout their history. Revolutions in general are seen quite positively, and charisma is highly valued as a leadership characteristic • Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) – helped legitimize the revolution, served as an important source of government legitimacy until the late 20th century • Constitution of 1917 – created a democratic, three-branch government, but allowed the PRI to stabilize and consolidate power within the hands of its leaders.

    4. II. Historical Traditions • Authoritarianism – from Spanish colonial structure and strong-armed tactics of military-political leaders (caudillos) such as Porfirio Diaz, Mexico has long tradition of authoritarian rule. President currently still holds a great deal of power. • Populism – revolutions of 19th and 20th century had significant peasant base led by charismatic leaders that called for more rights for ordinary Mexicans, particularly indigenous citizens. Zapatista movement is reflection of this tradition

    5. Historical Traditions continued • Power Plays/Divisions within Elite – elites who led dissenters during 1810 & 1910 revolutions; warlords & caudillos of the early 20th century; and the politicos & tecnicos of the late 20th century • Instability and Legitimacy Issues – Mexico’s political history full of chaos, conflict, bloodshed, and violent resolution to political differences. Even though most Mexicans believe the government is legitimate, the current regime still leans toward instability

    6. III. Political Culture • National Identity – Mexicans share a strong sense of national identification based on common history, dominant religion and language • Importance of religion (Catholicism) • Patron-clientelism (“You scratch my back, I’ll scratch yours”) • Economic dependency

    7. IV. Geographic Influence • Mountains & Deserts– make communication and transportation difficult; promotes regionalism; limits areas where productive agriculture is possible • Varied Climates – cold, dry mountains to tropical rain forests because of Mexico’s varying terrain and long expanse from North to South • Natural Resources – petroleum, silver, copper, gold, lead, zinc, natural gas, timber • U.S.-Mexican Border – 2,000 mile long border means relationships are inevitable (migration, dependency, conflict)

    8. V. Population • Over 100 million people in Mexico • 60% Mestizo • 30% Amerindian (Indigenous) • 10% other (European, Asian, etc.) • Most populated Spanish-speaking country in the world • 75% of Mexico’s population live in urban areas (Mexico City’s population is 18 million) • Population in northern part of Mexico more prosperous than central & southern Mexico. Farther south you go the greater the poverty of the people.

    9. VI. Colonial Era (colonialism) • Cultural Heterogeneity – Spanish took control over numerous indigenous populations dominated by the Aztecs once they conquered Tenochtitlan • Mestizo – ethnic mixture of two peoples (European & indigenous) • Catholicism – most Spaniards settled in or near Mexico city, but Spanish priests settled throughout Mexico’s hinterland converting the population to Christianity. Priests developed strong relationships with the people of Mexico • Economic Dependency – all trade done with Spain • Spanish Hierarchy – elaborate political & social status hierarchy structure

    10. VII. Independence: “MEXICO” • Instability & Legitimacy Issues – Spanish left and took hierarchy structure with them, reorganizing government was difficult task, Mexico had 36 presidents from 1833-1855 • Rise of Military – Instability led to military control, ex. Santa Anna • U.S. Domination – US challenges Mexican land claims, Mexican-American War (1846-1848), Treaty of Guadelupe Hidalgo (US gets TX, NM, CA, AZ, UT, part of CO) • Liberals vs. Conservatives – Constitution of 1857 based on democratic principles. Liberal president Benito Juarez “liberalizes” Mexico. Conservatism reflected in joint French, Spanish, and English takeover of Mexico under Maximilian (1864-1867). After Maximilian’s execution Juarez brought back to power but liberal/conservative struggle would continue

    11. “The Porfiriato” • Porfirio Diaz • Military general under Benito Juarez • Staged military coup in 1876 • Instituted himself as president of Mexico, promised he would serve no more than one term • Ruled Mexico for 34 years with an iron hand • Cientificos – young, educated advisors of Diaz that believed in bringing scientific and economic progress to Mexico

    12. Influences of Porfiriato • Stability – Diaz dictatorship ended years of conflict and chaos • Authoritarianism – no sharing of political power beyond small, closed elite group • Foreign Investment/Economic Growth – cientificos encouraged entrepreneurship and foreign investment, primarily from the U.S., resulted in growth of business and industry • Growing Gap between Rich & Poor – as a result of development and industrialization

    13. VIII. 20th Century • Porfirio Diaz ousted in coup by other elites dissatisfied with Diaz’ rule and sensitive to the greed of the Porfirians • Diaz abdicates to General Francisco Madero, a landowner from Coahuila • Revolution of 1910 begins and warlordism and chaos would persist in Mexico until 1934

    14. Influences of the Mexican Revolution • Patron-client System • Constitution of 1917 • Conflict with Catholic Church • Establishment of the PRI

    15. Mexican Revolution continued • Patron-Client System – in an effort to unseat Diaz, caudillos rose to challenge each other for power. Popular leaders Pancho Villa & Emiliano Zapata emerged leading peasant armies. Around each leader a patron-clientsystem emerged that involved large numbers of citizens • Many caudillos were ultimately assassinated (including Villa and Zapata) • Large numbers of followers were also killed in the competing world of the caudillos

    16. Constitution of 1917 • Ended the Revolution • Violence & Political Assassinations continued • Mexican constitution very long and easily amended • Set up structure for Democratic Government (Political Institutions resemble those of the U.S.) • Three branches of Government • Competitive Elections • Most public officials directly elected by the people

    17. Conflict with Church after Revolution • Cristeros Rebellion (1920) • Hundreds of Thousands Killed (Priests murdered) • Liberals legally separate Church & State, viewed church as a bastion of conservatism • Forbid priests from voting • Placed federal restrictions on church-affiliated schools (parochial schools) • Suspended religious services • Priests continue to lead rebellions after Liberal changes, contributes to chaos of 20th century

    18. Establishment of PRI • After years of conflict, President Calles brings caudillos together for agreement in 1929 • Attempts to bring all caudillos under one big, umbrella political party • Bring stability through the idea of “passing around” power from one leader to the next as presidency changed hands • Sexenios – president could only serve one 6-year term • Other leaders would be given major positions in government to establish their influence • PRI- “institutionalized” the revolution by stabilizing conflict between leaders

    19. IX. Cardenas Upheaval(1934-1940) • Succeeded Calles’ as president • Stabilized and Radicalized Mexican politics • Gave voice to peasant demands from the Revolution of 1910 • Charismatic leader • “the Roosevelt of Mexico” as labeled by American scholars

    20. Cardenas’ Changes • Redistribution of Land – land taken away from big landlords, foreigners and redistributed as ejidos – collective land grants – to be worked by peasants • Nationalization of Industry – foreign business owners kicked out of country, most industry put under control of the state. Ex: PEMEX – giant, government controlled oil company • Investment in Public Works – government builds roads, provides electricity, creates public services to modernize Mexico • Encouragement of Peasant & Union Organizations – Cardenas welcomes their input in government, they form their own camarillas with leaders that represent their interests on presidents’ cabinet • Concentration of Power in Presidency – Cardenas stabilizes presidency, when his sexenio was up he peacefully let go of power

    21. Cardenas and ISI • Cardenas’ strategy of state-led development known as Import Substitution Industrialization (ISI) • ISI • Employs high tariffs to protect locally produced goods from foreign competition • Government ownership of key industries • Government subsidies to domestic industries • Government takes lead in promoting industrialization (very little capital in private hands during this era)

    22. X. Tecnicos & the Pendulum Theory • Miguel Aleman becomes president in 1946 • Encouraged entrepreneurship • Foreign investment • Free-market strategies on exports • Followed by president who returned to Cardenas-style reform • Pendulum Theory –back-and-forth effect in Mexican politics from socialist reform to free-market economic development and back again. • By the 1970s the pendulum appeared to stop with the emergence of the tecnicos

    23. Tecnicos continued • Tecnicos – educated, business-oriented leaders usually with degrees in economics, political science, business, etc. • Tecnicos in the PRI espouse the free-market approach to politics • By the 1980s Mexico had settled into an economic approach based upon Neoliberalism • Free markets • Balanced budgets • Privatization • Free trade • Limited government intervention in the economy

    24. “Tecnicos & Politicos” • By 1950s Mexico welcomed foreign investment • GNP experienced spectacular growth until the 1980s • This “Mexican Miracle” based largely on huge supplies of natural gas & oil • Mexico became a model for LDC’s everywhere • “Oil Bust” of the early 1980s, plummeting price of oil sunk the Mexican economy and inflated the value of the peso • This caused added political tension within the PRI • Division between the “politicos” – old style caciques who headed camarillas – and the “tecnicos” began to grow wider

    25. XI. Citizens, Society, & the State • Traditionally Mexican citizens have interacted with government through patron-client system • Because camarillas so interwoven in Mexican politics, most people have had some contact with government during their lives • Clientelism has generally meant that the government had the upper hand through its ability to determine which interests to respond to and which to ignore • Role of citizens in Mexico is changing as political parties have become competitive and democracy becomes more firmly entrenched

    26. XII. Cleavages • Urban vs. Rural –Mexico’s political structure put into place in early 20th century when most of population was rural. PRI and patron-client system were intended to control large numbers of illiterate peasants in exchange for small favors from politicos. Today Mexico is 75% urban, with a literacy rate of about 90%. Urban voters less likely to support PRI, more receptive to political and economic reform • Mestizo vs. Amerindian – only about 10% of Mexicans speak indigenous languages, but about 30% consider themselves Amerindians. Amerindians marginalized, predominantly rural, and poor. This cleavage tends to define social class, with most of Mexico’s wealth in the hands of the mestizo population. • North vs. South – north almost like a different country then the area south of Mexico City. Majority of educated citizens and Mexico’s wealth lies in the north. Southern Mexico primarily populated by Amerindians, characterized and led by Zapatista Movement in Chiapas.

    27. XIII. Political Participation • Historically characterized by revolution & protest • Mexican citizens have generally been subjects under authoritarian rule of the political elite • Citizens sometimes benefited from patronage, but legitimate channels to policy-makers were few • Today citizens participate through increasingly legitimate and regular elections

    28. XIV. Patron-Client System (Mexico) • Roots in warlordism and loyalty to caudillos during 19th century • Each caudillo had supporters – in return for their loyalty – he granted favors to them • Establishment of Camarillas that still exist today • Mexican citizens participate in government through formal & informal mechanisms • Emphasizes compromise among contending elites • “Behind the Scenes” conflict resolution • Distribution of political rewards to those willing to play by formal/informal “rules of the game” • Keeps control in the hands of the elite • Elite has upper hand in deciding who gets favors and who doesn’t • Patron-client system still very important in determining the nature of political participation • Modernization and legitimate democracy tend to break up the patron-client system as networks get blurred in large population centers, and more formal forms of participation are instituted

    29. Camarillas • Hierarchical network • Exchange of offices and other benefits • Within the PRI, up until the election of 2000, most positions within the president’s cabinet were filled by supporters or heads of camarillas that the president wanted to appease • Peasants in camarillas received jobs, financial assistance, family advice, and even food & shelter in return for votes for the PRI in the past

    30. Protests • When citizens demands have gotten out of hand, the government generally responded by not only accommodating their demands, but by including them in the political process through cooptation • Tlatelolco (1968) – student protest led to a massacre by government troops. Next president recruited large numbers of students into government, increased spending on social services • Zapatista Uprising (1994) – Chiapas rebellion reminded Mexicans that some people still lived in appalling conditions, and poverty and lack of education were still serious problems

    31. Voter Behavior • PRI era • PRI controlled local, state, & national elections • Voting rates high because of patron-client system • Election day festive, accompanied by free food, music, and celebratrions • Corruption extensive • Challengers easily defeated with “tacos” – stuffed ballot boxes • Post-PRI era • Presence of competing parties, have existed since 1930s, but no real legitimacy until 1994 • 78% of eligible citizens voted in 1994 • 64% voted in 2000 • Both much better than 49% of 1988 when PRI corruption was at its height

    32. Factors influencing Voters • Age • Younger voters were more likely than older voters to support Vincente Fox’s PAN, and older voters more likely to support the PRI • 59% of all student voters chose PAN • 19% voted for the PRI • Education • The more educated voted for Fox and the PAN • 60% of those with a college education voted for Fox • 22% of college educated voted for Labastida, the PRI candidate • Region • PRI evenly supported throughout the regions of the country • PAN received majority of its support from the north and center-west

    33. XV. Political Institutions: Mexico in Transition • Mexico characterized by economic and political transition • Authoritarianism under the PRI has been replaced by competitive elections, although political hostilities still exist • Economic dependency and underdevelopment slowly being transformed as public policies have been supportive of a free market economy, yet a backlash against neoliberalism has continued • “Developed”, “Developing”, or “Less Developed”, how do we classify Mexico? • Regime type: from corporatist structure to transitional democracy

    34. How Development is Measured • GNP per capita– estimate of a country’s total economic output divided by its total population, converting to a single currency, usually the U.S. dollar. Does not take into account what goods & services can actually be purchased with local currency. • PPP–Purchasing Power Parity – takes into account cost of living in a particular country figuring out what it costs to buy the same goods in different countries (Mexico is $9800 per year) • HDI – Human Development Index – longevity, knowledge, income (Mexico’s literacy rate is 94% for men & 90.5% for women, life expectancy is 72.4 years for men and 78 years for women • Economic Dependency – a less developed country is often dependent on developed countries for economic support and trade. Balanced trade is generally the key, a country is said to be “developing” when it begins relying less on the stronger country to keep it afloat financially • Mexico is in the middle in terms of its development, it is generally considered to be a “developing” country that has shown gradual improvement in all of its indices

    35. Transitional Democracy • Political Accountability • Political Competition • Political Freedom • Political Equality • Mexico has developed some democratic characteristics in recent years, but still has many distinctions present from its authoritarian history. Longevity of democratic practices is another way of determining whether a country is a stable democracy, usually 40 years or more. Mexico does not yet fit this description.

    36. XVI. Linkage Institutions • Mexico’s political parties, interest group, and media all worked to link Mexican citizens to their government • During the PRI era all of this took place under the authority of the PRI party so a true civil society did not exist • As democratization began and civil society began to develop, these structures were already in place, so activating democracy was easier than it would have been otherwise

    37. XVII. Political Parties • Partido Revolucionario Institucional (PRI) • National Action Party (PAN) • Democratic Revolutionary Party (PRD)

    38. PRI • In power from 1920-2000 • Founded by coalition of elites led by President Calles • Originally elites agreed to trade favors and pass around power from one cacique to another (Sexenio) • Corporatist structure – interest groups woven into the structure of the party. Party has ultimate authority, but other voices heard by bringing interest groups under the umbrella of the party. Structure is not democratic, but allows for more input into government than other types of authoritarianism. Particularly since Cardenas peasant and labor organizations have been represented in the party and hold positions of responsibility • Patron-client system – party traditionally gets its support from rural areas where patron-client system is still in control. Patron-client system allowed the PRI to remain in control of Mexicans as long as majority of population was rural-based, this began to change in the late 1980s

    39. PAN (Right of Center) • Founded in 1939 • Represents business interests opposed to centralization and anti-clericalism • PAN support strongest in the north • PAN generally considered PRI’s opposition to the Right • PAN candidate Vicente Fox won 2000 presidential election, Felipe Calderon won 2006 election • Platform • Regional autonomy • Less government intervention in the economy • Clean & fair elections • Good rapport with Catholic Church • Support for private and religious education

    40. PRD (Left of Center) • PRD considered PRI’s opposition to the Left • Presidential candidate in 1988 & 1994 was Cuahtemoc Cardenas (son of Lazaro Cardenas) • He was ejected from the PRI for demanding reform that emphasized social justice and populism • In 1988 Cardenas won 31.1% of the official vote, and PRD captured 139 seats in the Chamber of Deputies (500 total) • Many believe had it been an honest election Cardenas would have won • PRD has been plagued by poor organization, lack of charismatic leadership, and most importantly the lack of an economic alternative to the market-oriented policies of the PRI & PAN • Andres Lopez Obrador, former mayor of Mexico City, was the PRD candidate for president in the 2006 election. He lost by a slim margin to Calderon (PAN)

    41. Elections • Citizens in Mexico directly elect the president, Chamber of Deputy Representatives, and Senators as well as most local & state officials • Elections are generally competitive, specifically in urban areas • Members of congress elected through dual system of “first-past-the-post” and proportional representation • Proportional representation was increased in a major reform law in 1986, a change that gave power to political parties that challenged PRI control • Each of Mexico’s 31 states elects three senators, 2 are determined by majority vote, the other is determined by whichever party receives the second highest number of votes • 32 senate seats are determined nationally through a system of proportional representation that divides the seats according to the number of votes cast for each party (128 Senate seats in total) • In the Chamber of Deputies, 300 seats are determined by plurality within single-member districts, and 200 are chosen by proportional representation

    42. Voter Profiles • PRI – small town or rural, less educated, older, poorer • PAN – from the north, middle-class professional or business, urban, better educated (at least high school, some college) religious (or those less strict regarding separation of church & state) • PRD – younger, politically active, from the central states, some education, small town or urban

    43. Election of 2000 • PAN/PRD candidate Vicente Fox won presidency (43% of the vote compared to 36% garnered for PRI candidate Francisco Labastida) • PAN captured 208 of 500 deputies in lower house • PRI captured 209 deputy seats in the lower house • PAN won 46 senate seats; PRI won 60 senate seats • New, competitive election system has encouraged coalitions to form to the right & left of the PRI • Split in votes has encourage gridlock, phenomenon unknown to Mexico under the old PRI-controlled governments • Election of 2006 – closely contested election, won by PAN candidate Felipe Calderon by narrow margin over PRD candidate Andres Lopez Obrador

    44. Interest Groups & Popular Movements • Corporatist structure allowed for accommodation of interest group • Business Interests – networked with political leaders to protect the growth of commerce, finance, industry, and agriculture • Labor – accommodated within system, wage levels for union workers increased from 1940-1982, until economic crisis of lowering oil prices caused wages to drop. Power of union bosses has decreased as unions weaken and members become more independent • Rural/Peasant Organizations – encouraged under PRI through the ejido system that granted land from the government to these organizations. Since 1980s groups have demanded greater independence from the government, and supported movements for better prices for crops, and access to markets and credit. Joined with other groups to promote better education, health services, and environmental practices • Urban/Popular Movements – concerned about social welfare spending, city services, neighborhood improvement, economic development, feminism, and professional identity. As groups become more independent and grow in strength the government and political system must negotiate with them, and in doing so transform the political culture

    45. Media • Part of the patron-client system under the PRI, with rewards and favors doled out in return for political support • Have become more independent as PRI-political structure has been reorganized • Many Mexicans have access to international newspapers, magazines, CNN and the BBC • “Toallagate” Scandal – overpriced towels at President Fox’s mansion • “Comes y te vas” – Fidel Castro-U.N. meeting incident

    46. XVIII. Government Institutions • Mexico is a federal republic, though state and local governments have little independent power and few resources • Executive branch has held majority of the power historically • Legislative & Judicial branch followed the executive’s lead, rubber-stamping most presidential decisions • Mexico has traditionally been an authoritarian and corporatist regime

    47. Executive Branch • Center of policy-making • Sexenio: non-renewable six-year term (Under PRI similar to dictator) • Selected successor • Appointed officials to all positions of power in the government • Named PRI candidates for other public offices • Until mid-1970s Mexican presidents were above criticism and people revered them as symbols of national progress and well-being • Managed huge patronage system • Control over “rubber-stamp” Congress • President Ernesto Zedillo (1994-2000) –relinquished number of traditional powers of the president, including naming the PRI candidate for the 2000 election • President Fox inherited the presidency in a time of transition • President still viewed as all powerful, but blamed for shortcomings • Harder for Fox to accomplish political goals without strong party support in the post-PRI Congress

    48. Bureaucracy • About 1.5 million people employed by federal government (Most in Mexico City) • High & Middle level officials have a good deal of power • Under PRI corruption and bribes quite common amongst officials in the bureaucracy • Parastatal Sector – semiautonomous government agencies that often produce goods & services • PEMEX • After 1980’s oil bust reforms cut the number of para-statals, and many are now privately owned • President Fox tried unsuccessfully to privatize PEMEX

    49. Legislature • Bicameral • Chamber of Deputies (500-member) • 300 deputies from single-member districts (plurality) • 200 deputies chosen by proportional representation • Senate (128-member) • 3 senators from each of the 31 states & the federal district(96) • Remaining 32 selected by proportional representation • All legislators directly elected • Until 1980s legislature remained under strict control of the president • PRI’s lost hold on legislature earlier than it did on the presidency • Lost majority in the Chamber of Deputies in 1997 • Women in both houses has risen significantly since 1996 election law required parties to sponsor female candidates • Parties must run at least 30% female candidates for proportional representation and single-member district elections • 113 of 500 deputies in Chamber are female • 20 of 128 Senators are also female

    50. Judiciary • Strong judicial branch necessary for a country to operate on the “Rule of Law” • Mexico does not have an independent judiciary or judicial review system • Most laws are federal, limiting the authority of state courts • Supreme Court • On paper has judicial review, but it never overrules important government policy or actions • Historically has been controlled by the executive branch • Judges appointed for life, but in practice resigned at the beginning of each sexenio • President Ernesto Zedillo (1994-2000) attempted to strengthen courts by emphasizing the rule of law, he refused to interfere with court judgments and President Fox continued this policy • Fox tried to work for an independent judiciary but seems to have come up short on this endeavor