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Maternal and Child Health. June 30, 2014. Maternal Child Health. Different from Women’s Health and Child’s Health “Maternal” Health of mothers and children highly inter-related: pregnancy, nutrition, lactation, primary care provision, health seeking, advocacy for education etc

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maternal child health
Maternal Child Health
  • Different from Women’s Health and Child’s Health
    • “Maternal”
    • Health of mothers and children highly inter-related: pregnancy, nutrition, lactation, primary care provision, health seeking, advocacy for education etc
    • Maternal educational status consistent predictor of infant survival
leading causes of under five m m in developing world
Leading Causes of Under Five M & M in Developing World
  • Infectious Diseases leading cause of death among children (about half)
  • Undernutrition
    • Potentiating effects on infectious diseases
    • Related to poor learning and cognitive function
  • Perinatal (extreme prematurity, stillbirth etc)
infectious diseases in under 5 s
Infectious Diseases in Under 5’s
  • Many vaccine preventable
    • Expanded Program of Immunization (EPI) established 1974
    • Has significantly reduced polio, neonatal tetanus, and measles
  • Parasitic diseases-treatment available for almost all
    • Malaria major killer in sub-saharan Africa (1 million per year) and morbidity extensive ---> severe anemia, undernutrition
    • Helminth infections ---> anemia, undernutrition, cognitive
  • HIV/AIDS
  • Acute lower respiratory tract infections (number 1)
  • Diarrheal illnesses - highlight precarious state of children
slide6
The assets of the top 3 billionaires are more than the combined GDP of all of the least developed countries and their 600 million people
slide7
At least 1/5 of the world’s population (1.2 billion people) live in absolute poverty, surviving on US$1 or less a day, and a total of 50%, half of the world’s population, live on US$2 or less a day
  • 70% of people living in absolute poverty are women.
slide11
66% of child deaths each year are caused by diarrhea, acute respiratory infections, measles, malaria and perinatal illnesses.
maternal mortality
Maternal Mortality
  • Risk of dying as result of pregnancy or childbirth
    • 1 in 30 000 in Sweden
    • 1 in 6 in Afghanistan and Sierra Leone
  • Maternal mortality ratio (# of maternal deaths/100 000 live births)
    • US - 17
    • Haiti - 680
    • Malawi - 1800

UNICEF, 2004

maternal mortality1
Maternal Mortality

MMR

UNICEF, 2004

more disparities
More Disparities
  • Urban vs Rural
    • Afghanistan:
      • MMR 418 in Kabul
      • MMR 6507 in rural Ragh
  • Wealthy vs Impoverished
    • Peru
      • Richest quintile – MMR 130
      • Poorest – MMR >800
what can be done
What can be done

26¢Measles vaccinePer dose

Malawi boosted immunization coverage to 90 percent in 2002 from 50 percent in 1980. For the first time ever, no measles deaths were reported in 1999.

what can be done1
What can be done

$1.20Tetanus vaccine3 doses for mother

Bangladesh increased coverage for mothers to 86 percent in 1998 from 5 percent in 1986; during the same period, the death rate fell to 4 per 1,000 live births from 41.

what can be done2
What can be done

33¢Oral rehydration saltsPer dose

In Mexico, since the introduction of oral rehydration therapy in 1984, mortality rates for diarrheal diseases fell by 60 percent in less than a decade.