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Cumulative degree-hours for each life stage: Species ALab Procedure 2, Step4: By adding all the degree hours for each of the six life stages together, you calculate the cumulative degree hours required for an adult fly to develop at 21°C.

Cumulative degree-hours for each life stage: Species ALab Procedure 2, Step4: By adding all the degree hours for each of the six life stages together, you calculate the cumulative degree hours required for an adult fly to develop at 21°C.

Cumulative degree-hours for each life stage: Species ALab Procedure 2, Step4: By adding all the degree hours for each of the six life stages together, you calculate the cumulative degree hours required for an adult fly to develop at 21°C.

Degree-Hour DeterminationDegree-Hour Determination

Degree-Hour Determination

A degree-hour is a unit of measure for charting insect growth. It is just an expression for the amount of time spent at a specific temperature.

For example, flies that are incubated at 90 degrees for one hour will have the same level of development as those that are kept at 45 degrees for two hours.

90 degrees * 1 hour = 90 degree-hours

45 degrees * 2 hours = 90 degree-hours

30 degrees * 3 hours = 90 degree-hours

Degree-Hour Determination

Knowns

- Bodies discovered at 1:00PM on June 20
- Insects collected at 3:00PM on June 20
- Weather type (sunny, partly cloudy, overcast)
- Weather events (rain, thunderstorms, snow)
- Daily average temperature
- Male and Female had the same species and lifecycles present (Migrating 3rdInstar Species A, 2ndInstar Species B)

Unknowns

- Elapsed degree-hours for each day
- Degree-hours for each life stage of both species
- Cumulative degree-hours for each life stage of both species
- Cumulative elapsed degree hours for each day
- Which day the adult insect from both species laid its eggs
- Earliest and latest time the insects began developing

Elapsed degree-hours for each day

Lab Procedure 2, Step2: Determine the number of degree hours for each day using the weather service data. To do this, multiply the average temperature times 24 hours for each day. This can be performed in a spreadsheet.

- Every daily average temperature in the month will be multiplied by 24 except June 20.
- The collection time was 3:00PM on June 20, this tells us to multiply the average temperature on this day by 15 hours (12:00AM through 3:00PM = 15hrs) instead of 24 hours

Elapsed degree-hours for each day

On June 20 we multiply the average temperature by 15 hours to get degree-hours for that day

Elapsed degree-hours for each day

For every other day, we multiply the average temperature by 24 hours to get degree-hours for that day

Degree-Hour Determination

Knowns

- Bodies discovered at 1:00PM on June 20
- Insects collected at 3:00PM on June 20
- Weather type (sunny, partly cloudy, overcast)
- Weather events (rain, thunderstorms, snow)
- Daily average temperature
- Male and Female had the same species and lifecycles present (Migrating 3rd Instar Species A, 2nd Instar Species B)

Unknowns

- Elapsed degree-hours for each day
- Degree-hours for each life stage of both species
- Cumulative degree-hours for each life stage of both species
- Cumulative elapsed degree hours for each day
- Which day the adult insect from both species laid its eggs
- Earliest and latest time the insects began developing

Degree-hours for each life stage: Species A

Lab Procedure 2, Step3: Determine the number of degree-hours required for each life stage of both species. To do this, multiply the number of hours by the degrees Celsius given in the life cycle table.

Degree-hours for each life stage: Species B

Lab Procedure 2, Step3: Determine the number of degree hours required for each life stage of both species. To do this, multiply the number of hours by the degrees Celsius given in the table.

Degree-Hour Determination

Knowns

- Bodies discovered at 1:00PM on June 20
- Insects collected at 3:00PM on June 20
- Weather type (sunny, partly cloudy, overcast)
- Weather events (rain, thunderstorms, snow)
- Daily average temperature
- Male and Female had the same species and lifecycles present (Migrating 3rd Instar Species A, 2nd Instar Species B)

Unknowns

- Elapsed degree-hours for each day
- Degree-hours for each life stage of both species
- Cumulative degree-hours for each life stage of both species
- Cumulative elapsed degree hours for each day
- Which day the adult insect from both species laid its eggs
- Earliest and latest time the insects began developing

Cumulative degree-hours for each life stage: Species A

Lab Procedure 2, Step4: By adding all the degree hours for each of the six life stages together, you calculate the cumulative degree hours required for an adult fly to develop at 21°C.

Cumulative degree-hours for each life stage: Species A

Lab Procedure 2, Step4: By adding all the degree hours for each of the six life stages together, you calculate the cumulative degree hours required for an adult fly to develop at 21°C.

Cumulative degree-hours for each life stage: Species A

Lab Procedure 2, Step4: By adding all the degree hours for each of the six life stages together, you calculate the cumulative degree hours required for an adult fly to develop at 21°C.

Cumulative degree-hours for each life stage: Species ALab Procedure 2, Step4: By adding all the degree hours for each of the six life stages together, you calculate the cumulative degree hours required for an adult fly to develop at 21°C.

Adult degree-hours = ∑ degree hours at each stage

= cumulative degree hours

= 10206

Cumulative degree-hours for each life stage: Species BLab Procedure 2, Step4: By adding all the degree hours for each of the six life stages together, you calculate the cumulative degree hours required for an adult fly to develop at 21°C.

Adult degree-hours = ∑ degree hours at each stage

= cumulative degree hours

= 11823

Degree-Hour Determination

Knowns

- Bodies discovered at 1:00PM on June 20
- Insects collected at 3:00PM on June 20
- Weather type (sunny, partly cloudy, overcast)
- Weather events (rain, thunderstorms, snow)
- Daily average temperature
- Male and Female had the same species and lifecycles present (Migrating 3rd Instar Species A, 2nd Instar Species B)

Unknowns

- Elapsed degree-hours for each day
- Degree-hours for each life stage of both species
- Cumulative degree-hours for each life stage of both species
- Cumulative elapsed degree hours for each day
- Which day the adult insect from both species laid its eggs
- Earliest and latest time the insects began developing

Cumulative degree-hours for each day

Lab Procedure 2, Step5: Calculate elapsed degree hours for each of the days in the climatological data provided. To do this, add the degree hours for each day to the one before it starting at the 20th of the month.

381.6 + 276 =657.6

Cumulative degree-hours for each day

Lab Procedure 2, Step5: Calculate elapsed degree hours for each of the days in the climatological data provided. To do this, add the degree hours for each day to the one before it starting at the 20th of the month.

393.6 + 657.6=1051.2

Cumulative degree-hours for each day

Lab Procedure 2, Step5: Calculate elapsed degree hours for each of the days in the climatological data provided. To do this, add the degree hours for each day to the one before it starting at the 20th of the month.

309.6 + 1051.2=1360.8

Cumulative degree-hours for each dayLab Procedure 2, Step5: Calculate elapsed degree hours for each of the days in the climatological data provided. To do this, add the degree hours for each day to the one before it starting at the 20th of the month.

From the 20th at 3:00PM til the 1st at 12:00AM there were a total of 7283.7 degree-hours

Knowns

- Bodies discovered at 1:00PM on June 20
- Insects collected at 3:00PM on June 20
- Weather type (sunny, partly cloudy, overcast)
- Weather events (rain, thunderstorms, snow)
- Daily average temperature

Unknowns

- Elapsed degree-hours for each day
- Degree-hours for each life stage of both species
- Cumulative degree-hours for each life stage of both species
- Cumulative elapsed degree hours for each day
- Which day the adult insect from both species laid its eggs
- Earliest and latest time the insects began developing

Which day the adult insect laid eggs on the body: Species A

Lab Procedure 2, Step6a: Examine the species A life stages collected as evidence and identify the oldest species A life stage collection for the adult male.

On Day 11, the cumulative degree-hours were 3257. Species A takes 2688 degree-hours to complete development in the Feeding 3rd Instar and begin development in the Migration stage of the 3rd Instar. The temperature data alone suggests that the eggs were laid on the 12th, but there was a storm then, so we know that the eggs were laid before then since flies are not active during thunderstorms.

Which day the adult insect laid eggs on the body: Species B

Lab Procedure 2, Step6a: Examine the species A life stages collected as evidence and identify the oldest species B life stage collection for the adult male.

On Day 17, the cumulative degree-hours were 1360. Species B takes 1302 degree-hours to complete development in the 1st Instar and begin development in the 2nd Instar.

Knowns

- Bodies discovered at 1:00PM on June 20
- Insects collected at 3:00PM on June 20
- Weather type (sunny, partly cloudy, overcast)
- Weather events (rain, thunderstorms, snow)
- Daily average temperature

Unknowns

- Elapsed degree-hours for each day
- Degree-hours for each life stage of both species
- Cumulative degree-hours for each life stage of both species
- Cumulative elapsed degree hours for each day
- Which day the adult insect from both species laid its eggs
- Earliest and latest time the insects began developing

Calculating the PMI

Post Mortem Interval = ∑ hours(day)

= h(20) + h(19) + h(18) + h(17) … + h(11)

= 15 + 24 + 24 + 24 … + 24

= 207 hours

= 8 days, 15 hours

Conclusion: Bodies have been dead for a minimum of 8 days, 16 hours

Post Mortem Interval = ∑ hours(day)

= h(20) + h(19) + h(18) + h(17) … + h(11)

= 15 + 24 + 24 + 24 … + 24

= 207 hours

= 8 days, 15 hours

THUNDERSTORM

The post mortem interval was calculated to be 8 days, 15 hours, but we know that the storm occurred on the evening of the 11th, so we conjecture that the flies were active at least an hour on the 11th to give them time to lay the eggs, thus bringing our PMI to a minimum of 8 days, 16 hours. The actual PMI, which is unknown, may vary up to 12 hours more than this calculation due to weather. Students’ calculations may vary by up to a day later.

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