Convergent Evolution • Organisms come from different ancestral lineages • Organisms have the same function, but not the same structure
Analogous Structures • Convergent evolution has analogous structures. • Structures perform the same function, but have a different form. • Wings in birds and wings in insects
Divergent Evolution • Species that were once similar, but have now gone their separate ways • Organisms have structures that have the same evolutionary origin
Homologous Structure • Divergent evolution has homologous structures • Structure are similar in arrangement and in function • Forelimb of human, cat, whale, and bat.
Vestigial Organs • Also from divergent evolution • Little to no importance to the organism • Remnants of structures that used to serve important functions in organisms ancestors • Pelvis in whale
Cladograms • Track traits through history • Show relationships between organisms