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Rewriting the Genetic Code. By: Ishika Desai. Genetic Code. DNA is made up of long sequences of letters that code for specific amino acids. Codons are made up of three of these nucleotides ( ACTG) Most three letter combos code for amino acids, but some represent stop codons.

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Presentation Transcript
genetic code
Genetic Code
  • DNA is made up of long sequences of letters that code for specific amino acids.
  • Codons are made up of three of these nucleotides (ACTG)
  • Most three letter combos code for amino acids, but some represent stop codons.
how does it work
How does it work?
  • System overwrites specific DNA sequences within the genome
  • Uses Multiplex Automated Genome Engineering (MAGE) to site-specifically replace stop codons across E. Coli strains
  • Uses Conjugative Assembly Genome Engineering (CAGE) to precisely control a naturally occurring process that bacteria use to exchange genetic material
potential advances
Potential Advances
  • Engineer bacteria that are resistant to several viruses
  • Build proteins not found in nature
bibliography
Bibliography
  • Isaacs, Farren J., Harris H. Wang, and Peter A. Carr. "Precise Manipulation of Chromosomes in Vivo Enables Genome-Wide Codon Replacement." Science Magazine: Sign In. N.p., 15 July 2011. Web. 09 July 2013. <http://www.sciencemag.org/content/333/6040/348.full>.
  • Trafton, Anne. "Scientists Unveil Tools for Rewriting the Codeof Life." MIT's News Office. N.p., 15 July 2011. Web. 09 July 2013. <http://web.mit.edu/newsoffice/2011/editing-genome-0715.html>.
medulloblastoma

MedulloBLASToma

By: Ishika Desai

medulloblastoma1
Medulloblastoma
  • Malignant brain tumor located in the cerebellum
  • Makes up 20% of brain tumors in children
  • Cause of medulloblastoma is unknown
  • Can become cancerous if it is combined with the expression of the catenin beta 1 gene
catenin gene
β-catenin Gene
  • Officially known as CTNNB1
  • Expression of β-catenin is associated with:
      • Carcinoma
      • Lung Cancer
      • Medulloblastoma
      • Malignant breast tumors
      • Endometrial cancer
      • Ovarian cancer
shrna production within e coli
shRNA production within E. coli

DNA

shRNA-induced

silencing

complex

Pol II

Pre-miRNA

Drosha

shRNA

lysteriolysin O

Dicer enzyme

Exportin 5

Leaves E. coli

slide14

≈≈≈

Invasin production

CTNNB1 mRNA

shRNA

CANCEROUS CELL

shRNA

Genetically engineered

E. coli

slide15

Methods currently used to treat cancerous medulloblastomas:

      • Surgery
      • Radiation
      • Chemotherapy
  • All of the methods listed above generally still result in a considerable amount of damage to healthy tissue
  • Oncologists and researchers have been looking into cancer treatments that precisely distinguish between healthy and diseased cells
expected results
Expected Results

Inverter (NOT) Logic Gate

A

X

expected results1
Expected Results
  • After invading the cancerous cells, it is expected that the shRNA in the RISC will bind to the CTNNB1 mRNA transcripts and induce mRNA cleavage
  • This will silence the CTNNB1 gene