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Theme 1: Surprise Endings. “The Gift of the Magi” “The Lady, or the Tiger”. Literary Terms. Irony. Irony. Irony. Discrepancy between what is expected and what happens. Verbal Irony. Verbal Irony. When a speaker says one thing but means another (similar to sarcasm)

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theme 1 surprise endings

Theme 1: Surprise Endings

“The Gift of the Magi”

“The Lady, or the Tiger”

  • Discrepancy between what is expected and what happens.
verbal irony1
Verbal Irony
  • When a speaker says one thing but means another (similar to sarcasm)
  • When a literal meaning is contrary to its intended effect
dramatic irony1
Dramatic Irony
  • Listener or audience understand words or actions that the speaker or character does not
  • Adds suspense or humor
senator palpatine evil
Senator Palpatine = Evil

4,5,6 (old Star Wars) 1,2,3 (new Star Wars)

situational irony1
Situational Irony
  • When the result of an action is contrary to the desired or expected effect
  • Author or speaker’s viewpoint of a subject
  • An author uses denotation & connotation to develop tone in writing.
    • Denotation: Literal meaning of a word
    • Connotation: Associated meaning of a word (often positive or negative)
connotation positive or negative
Connotation: Positive or Negative?
  • Self-confident / conceited
  • Stubborn / firm
  • Hard-working / workaholic
  • Casual / sloppy
  • Used car / pre-owned car
  • Warm crackling of a fire / scalding smoke of a fire
  • Methods used to reveal the personality of a character
types of characters
Types of Characters
  • Static character: does not undergo any important change from the beginning to the end of the story
  • Dynamic character: undergoes a change in attitude, circumstance, or values
methods of characterization
Methods of Characterization
  • Direct characterization – makes direct statements about character’s personality
  • Indirect characterization – reveals a character’s personality though:
    • Character’s words
    • Character’s actions
    • What other characters think about character
    • What other characters say about character
theme 2 suspense

Theme 2: Suspense!

“The Most Dangerous Game”

“The Cask of Amontillado”

  • Literally, a “leaf” of bright metal placed under a jewel to increase its brilliance
  • Foil:
    • A character whose personality or attitude is opposite that of another character
    • Through this contrast one character highlights the characteristics of the other character
  • Something that on the surface is its literal self but which also has another meaning or even several meanings.
  • For example, a sword may be a sword and also symbolize justice.
  • A symbol may be said to embody an idea.
universal symbols
Universal Symbols
  • Embody universally recognizable meanings wherever used
  • Ex: light to symbolize knowledge, a skull to symbolize death, etc.,
constructed symbols
Constructed Symbols
  • Are given symbolic meaning by the way an author uses them in a literary work,
symbolism in red death
Symbolism in “Red Death”
  • The color red
  • The ebony clock
  • The mysterious guest
  • The emotional quality or atmosphere of a story
    • Can suggest a specific emotion or quality of setting
    • Created by descriptive language, figures of speech, word choice
  • How would you describe the mood of “The Cask of Amontillado”
  • How does Poe create this mood?
  • Author’s use of clues to prepare readers for events that will happen later in the story
  • When did Poe use foreshadowing in the story?
  • A feeling of curiosity, uncertainty, or even dread about what is going to happen next.
  • Writes increase suspense by giving readers clues as to what might happen.
  • How does Poe create suspense in his story?
theme 3 imagination

Theme 3: Imagination

“The Secret Life of Walter Mitty”


figurative language
Figurative Language
  • Used to convey something other than the literal meaning of their words
  • Enriches our experience while reading
  • “If I had a nickel for every time I told you that, I’d be a millionaire.”
  • “Here once the embattled farmers stood

And fired the shot heard round the world.”

– Ralph Waldo Emerson

similes and metaphors
Similes and Metaphors
  • Compare two unlike objects
  • Comparison implies a shared quality
  • Compares two unlike things using “like” or “as”
  • Examples:
    • His face was as red as a tomato.
      • Compared items:
      • Shared quality:
    • The sprinter was like a racecar.
      • Compared items:
      • Shared quality:
  • Compares two unlike things without using “like” or as”
  • Examples:
    • The thief was a tiger, ready to pounce.
      • Compared items:
      • Shared quality:
    • The giant’s footsteps were thunder as he walked.
      • Compared items:
      • Shared quality:
  • Giving nonhuman or inanimate objects the qualities associated with humans or living creatures.
  • Examples:
    • The clock frowned at me as I dashed out the door.
      • Human or living quality:
    • The puppies played and giggled with one another.
      • Human or living quality:
  • Language that specifically appeals to one or more of the five sense.
    • Sight
    • Sound
    • Smell
    • Taste
    • Touch
  • Word that imitates or suggests the sound it describes
    • Buzz
    • Achoo
    • Pocketa-pocketa
  • Sensational plot
  • Exaggerated emotions