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Review Lifecourse Framework Review Sampson and Laub Terrie Moffitt’s Theory. Lifecourse Theory I. Must explain why there is stability (continuity) in antisocial behavior Must explain childhood precursors to offending (childhood antisocial behavior) Severe (age inappropriate) temper tantrums

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lifecourse theory i
Lifecourse Theory I
  • Must explain why there is stability (continuity) in antisocial behavior
  • Must explain childhood precursors to offending (childhood antisocial behavior)
    • Severe (age inappropriate) temper tantrums
    • Deviant/criminal behavior
  • Must explain desistence, or “change”
    • Antisocial children, but not adults
    • Adults that “age out”
lifecourse theory ii
Lifecourse Theory II
  • Types of Lifecourse Theories (From Cullen and Agnew)
  • Continuity Theories (Trait—G&H)
  • Continuity and Change Theories (Sampson and Laub, Patterson)
  • Continuity or Change Theories (Moffitt)
sampson and laub
Sampson and Laub
  • Important/Popular book: Crime in the Making: Pathways and Turning Points Through Life
    • First to fully outline “lifecourse” criminology
    • Put forth a lifecourse theory
    • Use “Glueck data” to test theory
pathways and turning points
Pathways and Turning Points
  • Pathways = stability
  • Turning Points = opportunity for change
sampson and laub s age graded theory of informal social control
Sampson and Laub’s “Age Graded Theory of Informal Social Control”
  • In what sense is the theory “age graded?”
  • What does “Informal Social Control” mean?
sampson and laub7
Sampson and Laub

Childhood Adolescence Adulthood

  • Context
  • Poverty
  • Neighborhood
  • Others
  • Parenting
  • Supervision
  • Discipline
  • Social Bonds
  • Family
  • School
  • Delinquent Peers

Delinquency

Adult Crime

Length of

Incarceration

  • Social Bonds
  • Marriage
  • Good Job
  • Individual
  • Differences
  • Temperament
  • Conduct disorder
  • diagnosis
continuity
Continuity
  • Stability of Trajectory
    • Individual differences (traits) possible
    • Cumulative Continuity
      • Delinquency/crime has effect on “adult social bonds”
      • Delinquency/crime can lead to incarceration, which also has effect on adult social bonds
      • These bonds, in turn, have effect on future crime
change
Change
  • Turning Points = Adult Social Bonds
    • Quality Marriage
    • Quality Employment
  • Why would these things reduce crime?
    • S&L: they increase informal control (bind individuals to society, give them something to lose)
    • Other explanations (spend less time with criminal friends, etc.)
sampson and laub ii
Sampson and Laub II
  • New Book/Articles based on follow-up data from Gleuck sample
    • Followed until age 70
  • Similar to original theory
    • Employment, marriage, military service
  • More complex-why a “turning point?”
    • Knife off past from the present/future
    • Supervision/monitoring (control) but also opportunities for social support/growth
    • Change to structure/routine activities
    • Opportunity for identity transformation
how do people desist
How do people desist?
  • Desistence by Default
    • No conscious decision to “stop offending”
      • Rather, roles, structure, social context changes
  • Human Agency
    • Vague concept that implies people have some say in the matter.
      • Not same as “rational choice” nor is it a “trait”
        • Interaction = land a good job but still must want to keep
    • Theoretical Importance
      • Lives do not “unfold” in predictable sequences
      • Desistence more difficult to explain than onset or persistence
terrie moffitt
Terrie Moffitt
  • A Stability or Change Theory
  • Argument:
    • There are 2 different “kinds” of offenders in the world
    • These types can be characterized by their unique “offending trajectories”
  • Failure of Mainstream Criminology?
    • During adolescence, these two groups look rather similar
moffitt s 2 groups of offenders
Moffitt’s 2 Groups of Offenders
  • LCP’s
    • Early Start, Stable over lifecourse, 5% of general population (small group)
    • Therefore…
      • Why start so early? Why so stable?
  • AL’s
    • Late starters, desist in adulthood, very prevalent in population
    • Therefore….
      • Why start so late? Why desist right away?
explaining the lcp trajectory
Explaining the LCP trajectory
  • Presence of “Neuropsychological Deficits”
    • Where do they come from?
    • Why do they matter?

INTERACTING WITH

  • Ineffective Parenting
    • Monitoring, supervision, etc.
  • This “dual hazard” puts them on bad path…however…
cumulative continuity for lcp s
Cumulative Continuity for LCP’s
  • What in the environment is affected?
    • Peer Rejection
    • School Failure
    • Parenting
  • THEREFORE
    • Cumulative continuity
    • Contemporary continuity (still have N.P. Deficit, personality traits)
explaining the al s
Explaining the AL’s
  • Maturity Gap
    • Knifing off Bonds as “rewarding”
  • Mimic
  • Why do AL’s desist?
  • However, some may exhibit continuity
    • “Snares” as another example of cumulative continuity
key moffitt questions
Key Moffitt Questions
  • Why do we need 2 theories?
  • How does she account for stability and change?
  • Specific explanations of LCP and AL offending