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Unit 2 Religions 600 BCE-600 CE. Paul Kim, Parker Revers, Andrew Cole. Judaism. Most Influential of the smaller Middle Eastern groups: The JEWS First clearly developed monotheistic religion influenced by the Babylonian civilization Firm belief in the one God Hebrew Bible

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unit 2 religions 600 bce 600 ce

Unit 2 Religions 600 BCE-600 CE

Paul Kim, Parker Revers, Andrew Cole

  • Most Influential of the smaller Middle Eastern groups: The JEWS
  • First clearly developed monotheistic religion
  • influenced by the Babylonian civilization
  • Firm belief in the one God
  • Hebrew Bible
  • Did not want to convert non-Jews
  • This religion was extremely influential as it did create the religions of Islam and Christianity
  • However not many people believed in Judaism due to the fact that Non-Jews were not converted, so about 1% of the population believed in Judaism
  • The technical founder: Abraham
  • Gender Roles: the roles of men and women are different but equal
  • Origin: Aryan invaders into India around 1700 BCE
  • No founder
  • Tolerant of other religions
  • EXTREMELY adaptable to growing and changing population
  • Little formal beliefs
  • Offers meditation and ritual
  • Possibly oldest religion
  • CASTE SYSTEM - still partially seen today
  • “Brahma” (Creator God)
  • “Harma” (Release of the soul achieved by following the rules)
  • “Dharma” (Follow the rules. Ex: Social Dharma)
  • Origin: Developed as a protest to Hindu priest practices; Gautama Buddha
  • 550 BCE
  • Monastic tradition (monks)
  • Went beyond India (China, Southeast Asia)
  • Wiped out in India due to effort of Hindus and Muslims by 1000 CE
  • Splits into Mahayana and Theraveda
  • Mahayana (Northern Buddhism. It is mainly followed by monks and nuns, and is largely found throughout China, Japan, Korea, Mongolia, Nepal, Russia, Tibet, and Vietnam)
  • Theraveda (Theravāda is the oldest surviving branch of Buddhism. It is relatively conservative.)
  • Zen Buddhism (700s in China, 1200s in Japan; sudden enlightenment through meditation)
  • System of political thought
  • believed in an authoritarian state ruled by force
  • Intellectual and literacy is discouraged
  • Law is supreme and replaces morality
  • A ruler must rule with an Iron Hand
  • Human Nature: Evil, unrestrained, and undisciplined
  • No true creator, but Han Fei was a key contributor to the legal system
  • It was influential only to the ruling elite and philosophers of Legalism who believed in rule by force
  • Not many people believed in Legalism as they did in Confucianism or Daoism so it would be around less than 1 percent
  • Origin: 550 BCE; Founded by Kong Qiu ( Confucius)
  • Philosophy to address problems of political and social disorder in China
  • Sought to promote social harmony by clarifying social relationships and proper rituals for all Chinese - (included rulers).
  • Spread by Key Disciples
  • Stressed “Patriarchy” (Men rule)
  • “Filial Piety” (Care for your elders)
  • Also stressed “Jen” (A quality of sympathy that relates all humanity to each other)
  • Only educated should govern
  • Founder of Daoism: Lao-Tzu
  • Influential to upper classes which had an interest in a more elaborate spirituality
  • embraced traditional Chinese beliefs in nature’s harmony and nature’s mystery
  • spiritual alternative to Confucianism - thus the people who believed in this religion were similar to those who believed in Confucianism
  • Lao’s teaching also stressed that true human understanding came from nature
  • Founded by Jesus Christ, claimed to be son of God
  • Holy book: The Bible, two sections, the Old and New Testament
  • No exact number of followers, however they represented about 12% of the population, while Judaism represented 1%
  • Not influential as a religion in this time period.
  • Patriarchal society, women subordinate, the religion didn’t sway traditional roles.
  • Monotheistic
  • 7 Sacraments, steps to live a full life
  • Jesus and the 12 Disciples were the influential figures
  • Disciples recorded the way Jesus wanted life to be lived, much like Islam
  • Believed that no evil originates from the supreme god, Ahura Mazda, only good, and the evil tries to destroy, while the good destroys.
  • Founder: Zoroaster
  • Influential Figure: Ahura Mazda
  • Monotheistic
  • Formed in modern day Iran
  • Influenced many other religions such as Judaism, Christianity and Islam
  • About 145,000 followers
  • The Holy Book is the Avesta
  • Gender Roles: Both genders equal, don’t discriminate by sex at all
  • Overall, not very influential
greek rationalism
Greek Rationalism
  • Theory that puts reason as the source of knowledge
  • Pythagoras, Plato, and Aristotle contributed to it, influential figures
  • No main founder
  • No main holy text
  • Made people question existence of divine figures
  • Unknown how many followers
  • Gender Roles: Patriarchal, very oppressive of women and children, both free and enslaved
  • Overall, made people begin to question previous religions, starting to lose faith in their holy figures

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