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is 311 Information Systems Fundamentals. College Of Computer Science and Information, Information Systems Department. Course Description. Information systems Fundamentals - IS 311 is a core course in the bachelor of information systems department.

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college of computer science and information information systems department

is 311

Information Systems Fundamentals

College Of Computer Science and Information, Information Systems Department

course description
Course Description
  • Information systems Fundamentals - IS 311 is a core course in the bachelor of information systems department.
  • This course is about the use of information systems in organizations and the technology that information systems use.
course objectives
Course Objectives

This course introduces the students to:

  • The main concepts of the information systems.
  • The nature and types of information systems.
  • The hardware and software computer technologies.
  • Data resource management.
  • Telecommunications and networks.
  • E-Business systems
  • Developing business systems
  • Information security, crime, and ethics.
teaching team
Teaching Team
  • Lecturer : Nouf Al mujally
  • Email:
  • Consultation Time:
    • Sunday 9-11
    • Monday 12:30-1:20
    • Tuesday 9 – 12
  • Office: 1.501.33

Course Reference

1- “Introduction to Information Systems” , by James A. O’Brien / Marakas , Fifteenth Edition , McGraw-Hill.


Course Link

In the website:

  • Announcement
  • Lectures
  • Tutorials (Home works)
  • Assignments
  • Grades
general notes
General Notes
  • No late submissions AT ALL !!
  • Copying from another student will result in a ZERO mark for all involved students
  • Exams will cover materials from the textbook, as well as material presented in the class.
  • Students who are absent on Midterm exam day due to illness are required to bring a signed medical excuse letter.
  • It is the student’s responsibility to contact the instructor if the midterm exam was missed within one (1) week following the scheduled exam date

Chapter 1- section II

Foundations of Information Systems in Business

  • What is a system?
  • Systems Functions.
  • Some system characteristics.
  • IS Components.
  • IS Resources.
  • IS Activities.
definition example
Definition - Example








what is a system
What is a System?
  • A system could be defined as:

“a set of interrelated components, with a clearly defined boundary, working together to achieve a common set of objectives by accepting inputs and producing outputs in an organized transformation process.”

  • Examples:
  • The biological system of the human body.
  • The technological system of an oil refinery.
basic functions of a system




Transforma-tion process converts input into output

(Ex: manufacturing process, Breathing process…)

Transferring transformed elements to their ultimate destination

(Ex: finished product, human services…)

Capturing and assembling elements that enter the system to be processed

(Ex: raw materials,

Data, students…)

Basic Functions of a System
two additional functions of a system
Two Additional Functions of a System

The system concept becomes even more useful by including two additional elements as follows:

  • Feedback: is data about the performance of the system.
  • Control: involves monitoring and evaluating feedback to determine whether a system is moving toward the achievement of its goal. The control function then makes the necessary adjustments to a system’s input and processing components to ensure that it produces proper output.
cybernetic system
Cybernetic System
  • All systems have input, processing, output.
  • A cybernetic system: a system that uses feedback and control components to achieve a self-regulation, self-monitoring capability.
  • Ex: home temperature control system
other system characteristics
Other System Characteristics
  • System Environment: system does not exist in vacuum, it rather exists and functions in an environment containing other systems.
  • Subsystem: if a system is a components of a larger systems, it is a subsystem, and the larger system is its environment.
  • System Interface: a shared boundary that allows the system to be connected to one another.
  • Open System: a system that interacts with other systems in its environment.
  • Adaptive System: a system that has the ability to change itself or its environment to survive.
information systems
Information systems
  • IS are made up of interrelated components:
    • People, HW, SW, networks.
  • They have clearly defined boundaries:
    • Functions, modules, type of application, department, or end-user.
  • All the interrelated components work together to achieve a common goal by accepting inputs and producing outputs in an organized transformation process:
    • Using raw materials, hiring new people , disseminating information to other.

If we apply our understanding of general system concepts

to information systems, it should be easy to see the parallels.

information systems1
Information systems
  • IS make extensive use of feedback and control to improve their effectiveness:
    • Error messages, dialog boxes, passwords, and user rights.
  • Many IS are designed to change in relation to their environments and are adaptive:
    • Intelligent software agents, expert systems, highly specialized decision support systems.
information system resources
Information System Resources


InformationSystem Resources





is resources1
IS Resources
  • People Resources:

People are the essential ingredients for the successful operation of all information systems. These people resources include end users and IS specialists.

    • End Users: are people who use an information system or the information it produces.
      • E.g. Customers, salespersons, accountants, or managers
    • IS specialists: are people who develop and operate information systems.
      • E.g. System Analysts - Software Developers - System Operators
is resources2
IS Resources
  • Hardware Resources

This concept includes all physical devices and materials used in information processing.

Example of hardware in computer-based information systems:

      • Computer systems : Consist of CPU containing processors and interconnected peripherals

E.g. laptop, tablet, desktop microcomputer system

      • Computer peripherals.

E.g. input : keyboard, mouse

output: screen , printers

storage : magnetic or optical disk drivers

is resources3
IS Resources
  • Software Resources

This concept includes all sets of information processing instructions.

Examples of software Resources:

    • System software

Operating system program that ccontrol and support the operation of computer system(e.g. Unix , Windows)

    • Application software

Programs direct the processing (e.g. word)

    • Procedures

Instructions for people who will use the IS (e.g. users manual for using sw package)

is resources4
IS Resources
  • Data Resources
    • Data constitute valuable organizational resources. Thus data should be seen as any organizational resource that must be managed effectively to benefit the organization.
    • Data that previously were captured as a result of common transaction are now stored, processed, and analyzed using sophisticated software applications that can reveal complex relationships among sales, customers, competitors, and markets.
    • In today’s world, it is very important to store and protect data that creates simple list of an organization’s customers with the same energy as the cash in a bank.
is resources5
IS Resources
  • Data can take many forms: Traditional alphanumeric data, Text data, Image data, Audio data.
  • The data resources of information systems are typically organized, stored, and processed by a variety of data resource management technologiesinto:
      • Databases
      • Knowledge bases (e.g. facts , rules, cases)
data versus information
Data Versus Information
  • Data:are raw facts, typically about physical phenomena or business transactions.
    • Data are objective measurements of the attributes (e.g. the characteristics) of entities (e.g. people, places, things, events).
  • Information:is data that have been converted into meaningful and useful context for end users.
  • Data are subjected to value-added process (Data processing or information processing) :
    • Aggregated, manipulated, and organized
    • Analyzed and evaluated
    • Placed in proper context for a human user
Example ..



$35,000 12 Units $12,000 J. Jones Western Region $100,000 100 Units 35 Units

Salesperson: J. Jones Sales region: Western Region

Current Sales: 147 Units = $147,000

Data Processing

is resources6
IS Resources
  • Network Resources:

The concept emphasizes that communications technologies and networks are fundamental resource components of all information systems.

  • Network resources include:
    • Communication media

(e.g. wire, microwave, cellular , wireless tech. ).

    • Network infrastructure

(e.g. modem ,network operating system, internet browser packages)

basic is activities
Basic IS Activities


Recording -Editing


Calculating, comparing, sorting , summarizing


Messages, reports, forms, image




Feedbacks monitoring, evaluated

recognizing information systems
Recognizing Information Systems
  • Business professionals should be able to look at an information system and identify…
    • The people, hardware, software, data, and network resources they use.
    • The type of information products they produce.
    • The way they perform input, processing, output, storage, and control activities.
Resources ..
  • Read from Chapter 1 (Section 2)