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Psychology 220 Unit 8: Classifying Mental Disorders, continued. David Rude, MA, CPC. Behavior Therapy. Use of learning principles to make constructive changes in behavior Deep insight is not necessary Focus on the present Cannot change the past No reason to alter that which has yet to occur

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Psychology 220 unit 8 classifying mental disorders continued

Psychology 220Unit 8: Classifying Mental Disorders, continued

David Rude, MA, CPC

Behavior therapy
Behavior Therapy

  • Use of learning principles to make constructive changes in behavior

    • Deep insight is not necessary

    • Focus on the present

      • Cannot change the past

      • No reason to alter that which has yet to occur

    • People learned to be the way they are

      • They can relearn more appropriate behaviors

Aversion therapy
Aversion Therapy

  • Associate a strong aversion to an undesirable habit like smoking, overeating, or drinking alcohol

    • EX: Rapid Smoking

    • Antabuse for alcoholism


  • Systematic desensitization

    • Reduction in fear, anxiety, or aversion brought about by planned exposure to aversive stimuli.

  • Hierarchy

    • Rank-ordered series of steps

    • Begin with least offensive and gradually move to more threatening stimuli

Cognitive therapy
Cognitive Therapy

  • Cognitive therapy

    • Change thinking patterns that lead to problematic behaviors or emotions

    • Focus is on

      • Self-talk

        • Distorted thinking in Unit 3

      • Beliefs

        • Stated

        • Core

Adjustment disorders
Adjustment Disorders

  • Adjustment Disorders

    • Emotional disturbance caused by on-going stressors within the range of common experience

    • Person is pushed beyond ability to cope effectively

Adjustment disorders1
Adjustment Disorders

  • Symptoms

    • Sleep disturbances

    • Irritability

    • Anxiety

    • Apathy

    • Depression

    • Loss of appetite,

    • Other physical complaints

  • Symptoms disappear when life circumstances improve

Adjustment disorders2
Adjustment Disorders

  • Differs from anxiety disorders

    • Outward symptoms are similar

    • Adjustment disorders

      • Disappear when a person’s life circumstance improve

    • Anxiety disorders

      • Generate their own misery, regardless of what’s happening around them

      • Autonomous to circumstances

Panic disorder
Panic Disorder

  • Agoraphobia

    • Fear that something extremely embarrassing will happen if they leave home or enter an unfamiliar situation

    • Now refers simply to avoidance behavior

      • Usually described as Panic Disorder.

Panic disorder1
Panic Disorder

  • Panic attack

    • Period of intense anxiety that occurs for no rational reason

    • Anxiety or fear is not

      • In response to a situation that tends to cause anxiety or fear in most people

      • Due to an organic cause

  • Panic Disorder

    • Intense irrational fear that a panic attack will occur in a public place or unfamiliar situations.

    • If they avoid places that frighten them it is called Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia.

Panic disorder2
Panic Disorder

  • Symptoms

    • Shortness of breath or smothering sensations.

    • Choking.

    • Palpitations or accelerated heart rate (tachycardia).

    • Chest pain or discomfort.

    • Sweating.

    • Dizziness, unsteady feelings, or faintness.

    • Nausea or abdominal distress

    • continued on next page

Panic disorder3
Panic Disorder

  • Feelings of unreality (depersonalization or de-realization).

  • Numbness or tingling sensations

  • Flushes (hot flashes) or chills.

  • Trembling or shaking

  • Fear of becoming seriously ill or dying.

  • Fear of going crazy or of doing something uncontrolled.

Panic disorder4
Panic Disorder

  • Seven factors that interact to create a person’s personality.

    • Family values and beliefs

    • Methods of discipline

    • Adult role models

    • Place within the family constellation.

    • Biological inheritance.

    • Social conditions

    • Meaning you gave to each of the above

Treating panic disorder
Treating Panic Disorder

  • Four basic skills

    • Understanding what produces and maintains excessive anxiety

    • Learn anxiety and stress reduction skills.

      • Cue controlled relaxation

      • Copying self-statements

      • Diaphragmatic breathing

      • Distraction (redirection)

Treating panic disorder1
Treating Panic Disorder

  • Moderating beliefs, habitual thinking patterns, and personality traits that generate excessive anxiety.

    • Perfectionism

    • Excessive need for approval

  • Using exposure and other behavioral approaches to overcome self-defeating behaviors associated with anxiety

Treating panic disorder2
Treating Panic Disorder

  • Two keys to long-term recovery

    • View anxiety as a messenger

      • Learning to hear the message it brings.

    • “Normalizing” yourself

False beliefs and perfectionism
False Beliefsand Perfectionism

  • Perfection is possible

    • Perfection by definition is impossible.

    • If my goal is perfection I’m guaranteed failure.

    • Perfection is a direction, not a place.

  • My value is determined by my achievements

    • Separate my value from the value of the things I do

False beliefs and perfectionism1
False Beliefsand Perfectionism

  • Mistakes are awful

    • Mistakes are a natural part of the learning process.

    • Most mistakes are not that important.

    • Mistakes are gifts of wisdom.

    • I made a mistake, I am not a mistake.


  • Three steps for effective problem solving when mistakes are made

    • What happened?

    • Can it be corrected?

    • What can I do differently next time?

      • What can I learn from this?

Excessive need for approval
Excessive Need for Approval

  • Coping self-statements used to challenge

    • I don’t need everyone’s approval.

    • Most of the disapproval I receive has little or nothing to do with me.

    • In the long run, the people who matter to me will accept me as I am, those who don’t, don’t

Generalized anxiety disorder gad
Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)

  • Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)

    • At least six months of chronic, unrealistic, or excessive anxiety

  • Three steps for dealing with worry

    • What are the odds?

    • How bad would it be?

    • Plan

      • 1) Prevent

      • 2) Cope

Specific phobias
Specific Phobias

  • Specific Phobias

    • Irrational, persistent fears, anxiety, and avoidance that focus on specific objects, activities, or situations

    • People with phobias realize fears are unreasonable and excessive

      • Cannot control them

    • Usually disrupts daily life

Specific phobias1
Specific Phobias

  • Types

    • Animal: dog, spider, snake

    • Natural environment: heights, storms, water

    • Blood, injection, injury, medical procedures

    • Situational: specific situation such as elevators or bridges

    • Other: wide range such as vomiting, catching a disease

Social phobia
Social Phobia

  • Social Phobia

    • Intense, irrational fear of being observed, evaluated, humiliated, or embarrassed by others in social situations

      • crowds, public speaking, urinating in public restrooms, eating out, signing name

    • Key issue: fear of being scrutinized by others

Obsessive compulsive disorder ocd
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

  • Extreme preoccupation

    • With certain thoughts

    • Compulsive performance of certain behaviors

  • Obsession

    • Recurring images or thoughts that a person cannot prevent

    • Cause anxiety and extreme discomfort

Obsessive compulsive disorder ocd1
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

  • Obsession (continued)

    • Enter into consciousness against the person’s will

    • Most common:

      • Being dirty

      • Wondering if you performed an action (turned off the stove)

      • Committing immoral acts

Obsessive compulsive disorder ocd2
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

  • Compulsion

    • Irrational acts that person feels compelled to repeat against his/her will

    • Help to control anxiety created by obsessions

    • Common types

      • Checking

      • Cleaners

      • Rituals

        Watch video on Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

Stress disorders
Stress Disorders

  • Stress Disorders

    • Occur when stresses outside range of normal human experience cause major emotional disturbance

  • Some common symptoms

    • Reliving traumatic event repeatedly

    • Avoiding reminders of the event

    • Numbing of emotions

    • Hyper-vigilence

Stress disorders1
Stress Disorders

  • Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) – watch video

    • lasts more than one month after the traumatic event has occurred

    • may last for years

    • Typically associated with combat and violent crimes (rape, assault, etc.)

    • May be delayed

Stress disorders2
Stress Disorders

  • Acute Stress Disorder

    • Psychological disturbance lasting up to one month following stresses from a traumatic event

Stress disorders3
Stress Disorders

  • Acute Stress Disorder

    • Psychological disturbance lasting up to one month following stresses from a traumatic event

Mood disorders
Mood Disorders

  • Mood disorder

    • Major disturbances in mood or emotions such as depression or mania

  • Two general types

    • Depressive

    • Bi-polar

    • NEW: Sweet Sodas and Soft Drinks May Raise Your Risk of Depression, Study Finds

Major mood disorders
Major Mood Disorders

  • Major Depressive Disorder:

    • A mood disorder where the person has suffered one or more intense episodes of depression

    • Everything looks bleak and hopeless

    • Suffering is intense

    • Biology

Major mood disorders1
Major Mood Disorders

Bipolar Disorders

Bipolar I Disorder

  • Extreme mania and deep


  • Mania

  • Excited, hyperactive,

    energetic, loud, grandiose


  • May experience affective


    Bipolar II Disorder

  • Person is mainly sad but has one or more hypomanic episodes

    (mild mania)

Treatment of mood disorders
Treatment of Mood Disorders

  • Two main treatments

    • Antidepressants

    • Cognitive-Behavior Therapy (CBT)

  • Others

    • Anticonvulsives for Bipolar I

    • Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) for Major Depression

Other mood disorders
Other Mood Disorders

  • Dysthymic Disorder

    • Moderate depression that lasts for at least two years

  • Cyclothymic Disorder

    • Moderate manic and depressive behavior that lasts for at least two years

Other mood disorders1
Other Mood Disorders

  • Reactive Depression

    • Depression is greater than typical depression

    • Triggered by a major failure, loss or setback



Dysthymic disorderBipolar I

Cyclothymic disorder Bipolar II

Reactive depression Major depressive disorder



B - Dysthymic disorder C + D - Bipolar I

C - Cyclothymic disorder C - Bipolar II

B - Reactive depression A - Major depressive disorder