Chapter 6 7 transitional technologies
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Chapter 6.7 Transitional technologies. Evolution of a hazardous waste management system. INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS. LEGISLATION. FACILITIES. IMPLEMENTATION & ENFORCEMENT. SUPPORTSERVICES. STAKEHOLDERS. Source: David C Wilson 1993, 1999.

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Chapter 6 7 transitional technologies

Chapter 6.7 Transitional technologies

TRP Chapter 6.7 1

Evolution of a hazardous waste management system
Evolution of a hazardous waste management system








Source: David C Wilson 1993, 1999

TRP Chapter 6.7 2

How to begin developing a hazardous waste management system
How to begin developing a hazardous waste management system?

  • First:

  • Understand how HWM systems are put together

  • Compare and contrast different national approaches

  • Understand the existing local system

  • Then:

  • Choose the ‘best of the rest’ from around the world

  • Adapt these to local needs and circumstances

  • Build a unique local system

TRP Chapter 6.7 3

How easy will the journey be for a developing economy
How easy will the journey be for a developing economy?


ability to learn from experience and mistakes of industrialised countries in last 20-25 years

  • Disadvantages:

  • lack of funds

  • lack of awareness

  • lack of skills

  • lack of infrastructure

TRP Chapter 6.7 4

The implementation conundrum
The implementation conundrum

No hazardous waste treatment facilities = no controls over hazardous waste generators

No controls = no waste to treatment facilities

  • High costs exacerbate problem

  • eg Hong Kong facility cost >US $150 million

  • Finance:

  • beyond capacity of most governments in developing economies

  • needs to come from private sector or international lending body

  • needs government assurance

TRP Chapter 6.7 5

Taking the first steps
Taking the first steps

  • Long lead time: timeframe between recognising problem and having treatment and disposal facility for hazardous wastes is 5-10 years

  • Need to win political support for:

    • imposing extra burden on industry

    • siting facility

    • carrying out EIA

    • obtaining planning permission

    • dealing with local opposition (not-in-my-back-yard or NIMBY syndrome)

  • It is better to do something now than to investigate for too long

TRP Chapter 6.7 6

Useful first steps
Useful first steps

  • Document and quantify problem

  • Designate and train responsible staff

  • Control water pollution and solid wastes

  • Introduce interim treatment/disposal measures

  • Address early measures for waste minimisation

  • Raise public/political awareness

  • Obtain appropriate independent advice

TRP Chapter 6.7 7

Transitional technologies used by industrialised countries 1
Transitional Technologies used by industrialised countries 1

Source: David C Wilson 1993

TRP Chapter 6.7 8

Transitional technologies used by industrialised countries 2
Transitional technologies used by industrialised countries 2

  • No longer available:

    • dumping at sea

    • incineration at sea

    • exportto developed countriesfor treatment and disposal - increasingly more difficult under the terms of the Basel Convention

    • co-disposal of hazardous wastes with municipal solid wastes

      • already banned in many countries

      • being phased out under the terms of EU Landfill Directive

TRP Chapter 6.7 9

Advantages of transitional technologies
Advantages of transitional technologies

  • Identification of waste generators

  • Raised awareness

  • Improved information for planning

  • Experience for managers and control staff

  • Reduced temptation to dispose improperly

TRP Chapter 6.7 10

Overcoming the disadvantages of transitional technologies
Overcoming the disadvantages of transitional technologies

  • Set firm deadlines on use

  • Segregate wastes

  • Control after-use

  • Maintain good operational control

  • Keep records

  • Ban imports

TRP Chapter 6.7 11

Examples of transitional technologies 1 short term measures
Examples of transitional technologies1 Short term measures

  • Export

  • Encapsulation

  • Solar evaporation

TRP Chapter 6.7 12

Examples of transitional technologies 2 low cost longer term measures
Examples of transitional technologies2 Low cost longer term measures

  • Waste avoidance and minimisation

  • Simple chemical treatment

  • Fuel blending for cement kiln incineration

TRP Chapter 6.7 13

Examples of transitional technologies 3 medium term measures
Examples of transitional technologies3 Medium term measures

  • Co-combustion in existing furnaces

  • Co-disposal in municipal solid waste landfill sites

  • Simple cement-based solidification

TRP Chapter 6.7 14

Early measures for waste minimisation
Early measures for waste minimisation

TRP Chapter 6.7 15

Source: David C Wilson 1993

Export to a developed country
Export (to a developed country)

  • Only acceptable:

    • In the short term

    • On a small scale

    • To properly managed and operated ‘high tech’ facilities

  • Example: PCBs for high temperature incineration from Middle East to UK

TRP Chapter 6.7 16


  • Short term option only

  • Suitable for high hazard waste

  • Pack securely in metal drums

  • Cast in fours in metal drums

  • Label, keep records

TRP Chapter 6.7 17

Solar evaporation
Solar evaporation

  • Useful for drying aqueous sludges

  • Use depends on climate and season

  • Strictly as short term option, in isolated areas under controlled conditions, has been used for small quantities of volatile organic solvents eg Arabian desert

TRP Chapter 6.7 18

Co combustion in existing industrial furnaces
Co-combustion in existing industrial furnaces

  • Beware air pollution problems

  • Do not use in domestic boilers

  • Do not use in cooking

  • Use in industrial boilers with care

  • Best option is use in cement kiln

TRP Chapter 6.7 19

Co disposal

  • Controlled mixing of selected hazardous wastes in sanitary landfill

  • Aims at biodegradation of organic constituents in hazardous waste

  • Can also attentuate concentrations of non-organic constituents


    • Proper sanitary landfill for MSW

    • Good management and control

    • Restricted range of acceptable wastes

    • Restricted loading rates

TRP Chapter 6.7 20

Cement based solidification
Cement-based solidification

Source: David C Wilson 1990

TRP Chapter 6.7 21

Cement based solidification case studies
Cement-based solidification -case studies

  • Brisbane, Australia:

  • Simple solidification in clay cells at a landfill site

  • facility in operation since 1982

  • solidification of liquid hazardous wastes with fly ash and cement kiln dust

  • wastes treated in clay cells in a separate area at landfill

  • Cape Town, South Africa:

  • Incorporation of tetraethyl lead (TEL) sludges in concrete

  • special precautions to protect workers

  • blended concrete used for road on landfill site

  • process carried out during dry summer months

TRP Chapter 6.7 22

Simple physico chemical treatment
Simple physico-chemical treatment

  • Physico-chemical treatment is part of a long-term solution

  • Technologies are simple and cost-effective

  • Easy to operate and maintain

  • Simplest plants use batch operation


TRP Chapter 6.7 23

Simple physico chemical treatment case study
Simple physico-chemical treatment - case study

Bangkok treatment facility

Source: David C Wilson

TRP Chapter 6.7 24

Co combustion in cement kilns
Co-combustion in cement kilns

  • Can be used as interim treatment method while dedicated waste treatment facilities being developed, as well as a long term solution

  • Useful in countries with established cement industry, operational cement kilns

  • Offers reduced fuel costs for cement production

  • Large capacity

  • Suited for various waste types

  • Constraints:

  • lack of trained personnel

  • concerns of cement kiln operators

  • cost and sophistication of trial burns

  • lack of detailed technical data on each facility

  • anxiety about accident risks

  • about accident risks

TRP Chapter 6.7 25

How to move from transitional solutions to long term ones
How to move from transitional solutions to long term ones

  • Ensure the use of short and medium term solutions are brought to an end by imposing a time limit

  • Tighten permit conditions gradually

  • Use landfill fees to fund new technologies

  • Make sure the public is aware of the issues

  • Landfill has a strategic role during the transition

TRP Chapter 6.7 26

Chapter 6 7 summary
Chapter 6.7 Summary

  • Developing an integrated hazardous waste management system is complex, takes time, money and political support

  • Developing economies have advantages and disadvantages, but need to start somewhere

  • Transitional technologies offer solutions but have drawbacks

  • Some are short term, some medium term

  • Some longer term, but low cost

  • Need to move gradually from transitional technolgies to long term ones

TRP Chapter 6.7 27