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# Chapter 10 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Chapter 10. Chemical Quantities. Before We Begin…. I can write numbers in scientific notation. I can write numbers in standard notation. I can multiply numbers written in scientific notation. I can divide numbers written in scientific notation. Before We Begin….

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### Chapter 10

Chemical Quantities

• I can write numbers in scientific notation.

• I can write numbers in standard notation.

• I can multiply numbers written in scientific notation.

• I can divide numbers written in scientific notation.

• We need to review some scientific notation.

• Scientific notation is a way of writing very large and very small numbers.

• Always written as a coefficient multiplied by 10 raised to a power.

3.5 x 1034

coefficient

power

• Write the following in scientific notation:

• 234560000

• 0.00056974

• 8524000000

• 0.000000044258

• To multiply numbers written in scientific notation you multiply the coefficients and add the powers.

(2.35x1014) x (3.25x10-23)

Multiply

(2.35x3.25) x 1014+-23

• To multiply numbers written in scientific notation you multiply the coefficients and add the powers.

(2.35x1014) x (3.25x10-23)

Multiply

• Multiply the following numbers:

• (1.23x104) x (4.56x107)

• (7.89x10-1) x (1.23x1010)

• (4.56x107) x (7.89x10-10)

• (1.23x10-11) x (4.56x10-23)

• To divide numbers written in scientific notation you divide the coefficients and subtract the powers.

(2.35x1014) ÷ (3.25x10-23)

Divide

Subtract

• To divide numbers written in scientific notation you divide the coefficients and subtract the powers.

(2.35x1014) ÷ (3.25x10-23)

Divide

Subtract

• Divide the following numbers:

• (1.23x104) ÷ (4.56x107)

• (7.89x10-1) ÷ (1.23x1010)

• (4.56x107) ÷ (7.89x10-10)

• (1.23x10-11) ÷ (4.56x10-23)

The Mole: A Measurement of Matter

10.1.1 – I can describe methods of measuring the amount of something.

10.1.2 – I can define Avogadro’s number as it relates to a mole of a substance.

10.1.3 – I can distinguish between the atomic mass of an element and its molar mass.

10.1.4 – I can describe how the mass of a mole of a compound is calculated.

• You often measure the amount of something by one of three different methods – by count, by mass, and by volume.

• If 0.20 bushel is 1 dozen apples and a dozen apples has a mass of 2.0kg, what is the mass of 0.50 bushel of apples?

• Mole (mol) – 6.02x1023 representative particles of that substance (SI unit for measuring the amount of something).

Converting Number of Particles to Moles representative particles, or 6.02x10

• You can use Avogadro’s number as a conversion factor.

Example: representative particles, or 6.02x10

• How many moles is 2.80x1024 atoms of silicon?

Converting Moles to Number of Particles representative particles, or 6.02x10

• The reverse also works.

Example: representative particles, or 6.02x10

• How many molecules are in 5.6 moles of NO2?

The Mass of a Mole of an Element representative particles, or 6.02x10

• The atomic mass of an element expressed in grams is the mass of a mole of the element.

• Molar mass – the mass of a mole of an element.

• Find the element on the periodic table and the mass that’s listed is the mass of one mole.

The Mass of a Mole of a Compound representative particles, or 6.02x10

• To calculate the molar mass of a compound, find the number of grams of each element in one mole of the compound.

• Then add the masses of the elements in the compound.

Example: representative particles, or 6.02x10

• What is the mass of 1.00 mol of sodium hydrogen carbonate?

Section 2 representative particles, or 6.02x10

Mole-Mass and Mole-Volume Relationships

Section 2 – Learning Targets representative particles, or 6.02x10

10.2.1 – I can describe how to convert the mass of a substance to the number of moles of a substance, and moles to mass.

10.2.2 – I can identify the volume of a quantity of gas at STP.

The Mole-Mass Relationship representative particles, or 6.02x10

• Use the molar mass of an element or compound to convert between the mass of a substance and the moles of a substance.

Example: representative particles, or 6.02x10

• Find the mass, in grams, of 4.52x10-3mol of C20H42.

Example: representative particles, or 6.02x10

• Calculate the number of moles in 75.0g of dinitrogen trioxide.

The Mole-Volume Relationship representative particles, or 6.02x10

• Avogadro’s hypothesis – states that equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain equal numbers of particles.

• At STP, 1 mole or 6.02x10 representative particles, or 6.02x1023 representative particles, of any gas occupies a volume of 22.4L

• Molar volume – the 22.4L of a gas.

Calculating Volume at STP representative particles, or 6.02x10

• 22.4L = 1 mol at STP provides a nice conversion factor.

Example: representative particles, or 6.02x10

• What is the volume of 3.70 mole N2 at STP?

Example representative particles, or 6.02x10

• How many moles are in 102 L of carbon dioxide, CO2?

Calculating representative particles, or 6.02x10Molar Mass from Density

• Different gases have different densities and is usually measured in g/L so we can calculate different things using density as a conversion factor.

Example: representative particles, or 6.02x10

• A gaseous compound composed of sulfur and oxygen, which is linked to the formation of acid rain, has a density of 3.58 g/L at STP. What is the molar mass of this gas?

The Mole Road Map representative particles, or 6.02x10

• A helpful tool to figure out easily which conversion factor to use.

This can also be found on page 303 in your Chemistry book