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Chapter 10. Chemical Quantities. Before We Begin…. I can write numbers in scientific notation. I can write numbers in standard notation. I can multiply numbers written in scientific notation. I can divide numbers written in scientific notation. Before We Begin….

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Chapter 10

Chapter 10

Chemical Quantities


Before we begin
Before We Begin…

  • I can write numbers in scientific notation.

  • I can write numbers in standard notation.

  • I can multiply numbers written in scientific notation.

  • I can divide numbers written in scientific notation.


Before we begin1
Before We Begin…

  • We need to review some scientific notation.

  • Scientific notation is a way of writing very large and very small numbers.


How to write numbers in scientific notation
How to Write Numbers in Scientific Notation

  • Always written as a coefficient multiplied by 10 raised to a power.

3.5 x 1034

coefficient

power


Examples
Examples:

  • Write the following in scientific notation:

    • 234560000

    • 0.00056974

    • 8524000000

    • 0.000000044258


How to multiply in scientific notation
How to Multiply in Scientific Notation

  • To multiply numbers written in scientific notation you multiply the coefficients and add the powers.

(2.35x1014) x (3.25x10-23)

Multiply

Add

(2.35x3.25) x 1014+-23


How to multiply in scientific notation1
How to Multiply in Scientific Notation

  • To multiply numbers written in scientific notation you multiply the coefficients and add the powers.

(2.35x1014) x (3.25x10-23)

Multiply

Add

Answer = 7.64x10-9


Examples1
Examples:

  • Multiply the following numbers:

    • (1.23x104) x (4.56x107)

    • (7.89x10-1) x (1.23x1010)

    • (4.56x107) x (7.89x10-10)

    • (1.23x10-11) x (4.56x10-23)


How to divide in scientific notation
How to Divide in Scientific Notation

  • To divide numbers written in scientific notation you divide the coefficients and subtract the powers.

(2.35x1014) ÷ (3.25x10-23)

Divide

Subtract


How to divide in scientific notation1
How to Divide in Scientific Notation

  • To divide numbers written in scientific notation you divide the coefficients and subtract the powers.

(2.35x1014) ÷ (3.25x10-23)

Divide

Subtract

Answer =0.72x1037


Examples2
Examples:

  • Divide the following numbers:

    • (1.23x104) ÷ (4.56x107)

    • (7.89x10-1) ÷ (1.23x1010)

    • (4.56x107) ÷ (7.89x10-10)

    • (1.23x10-11) ÷ (4.56x10-23)


Section 1
Section 1

The Mole: A Measurement of Matter


Section 1 learning targets
Section 1 Learning Targets

10.1.1 – I can describe methods of measuring the amount of something.

10.1.2 – I can define Avogadro’s number as it relates to a mole of a substance.

10.1.3 – I can distinguish between the atomic mass of an element and its molar mass.

10.1.4 – I can describe how the mass of a mole of a compound is calculated.


Measuring matter
Measuring Matter

  • You often measure the amount of something by one of three different methods – by count, by mass, and by volume.


Example
Example:

  • If 0.20 bushel is 1 dozen apples and a dozen apples has a mass of 2.0kg, what is the mass of 0.50 bushel of apples?


What is a mole
What Is a Mole?

  • Mole (mol) – 6.02x1023 representative particles of that substance (SI unit for measuring the amount of something).

  • Avogadro’s number - 6.02x1023 named after Amadeo Avogadro diQuarenga (1776-1856)


Chapter 10


Converting number of particles to moles
Converting Number of Particles to Moles representative particles, or 6.02x10

  • You can use Avogadro’s number as a conversion factor.


Example1
Example: representative particles, or 6.02x10

  • How many moles is 2.80x1024 atoms of silicon?


Converting moles to number of particles
Converting Moles to Number of Particles representative particles, or 6.02x10

  • The reverse also works.


Example2
Example: representative particles, or 6.02x10

  • How many molecules are in 5.6 moles of NO2?


The mass of a mole of an element
The Mass of a Mole of an Element representative particles, or 6.02x10

  • The atomic mass of an element expressed in grams is the mass of a mole of the element.

  • Molar mass – the mass of a mole of an element.

  • Find the element on the periodic table and the mass that’s listed is the mass of one mole.


The mass of a mole of a compound
The Mass of a Mole of a Compound representative particles, or 6.02x10

  • To calculate the molar mass of a compound, find the number of grams of each element in one mole of the compound.

  • Then add the masses of the elements in the compound.


Example3
Example: representative particles, or 6.02x10

  • What is the mass of 1.00 mol of sodium hydrogen carbonate?


Section 2
Section 2 representative particles, or 6.02x10

Mole-Mass and Mole-Volume Relationships


Section 2 learning targets
Section 2 – Learning Targets representative particles, or 6.02x10

10.2.1 – I can describe how to convert the mass of a substance to the number of moles of a substance, and moles to mass.

10.2.2 – I can identify the volume of a quantity of gas at STP.


The mole mass relationship
The Mole-Mass Relationship representative particles, or 6.02x10

  • Use the molar mass of an element or compound to convert between the mass of a substance and the moles of a substance.


Example4
Example: representative particles, or 6.02x10

  • Find the mass, in grams, of 4.52x10-3mol of C20H42.


Chapter 10


Example5
Example: representative particles, or 6.02x10

  • Calculate the number of moles in 75.0g of dinitrogen trioxide.


The mole volume relationship
The Mole-Volume Relationship representative particles, or 6.02x10

  • Avogadro’s hypothesis – states that equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain equal numbers of particles.


Chapter 10


Chapter 10

  • At STP, 1 mole or 6.02x10 representative particles, or 6.02x1023 representative particles, of any gas occupies a volume of 22.4L

  • Molar volume – the 22.4L of a gas.


Calculating volume at stp
Calculating Volume at STP representative particles, or 6.02x10

  • 22.4L = 1 mol at STP provides a nice conversion factor.


Example6
Example: representative particles, or 6.02x10

  • What is the volume of 3.70 mole N2 at STP?


Example7
Example representative particles, or 6.02x10

  • How many moles are in 102 L of carbon dioxide, CO2?


Calculating molar mass from density
Calculating representative particles, or 6.02x10Molar Mass from Density

  • Different gases have different densities and is usually measured in g/L so we can calculate different things using density as a conversion factor.


Example8
Example: representative particles, or 6.02x10

  • A gaseous compound composed of sulfur and oxygen, which is linked to the formation of acid rain, has a density of 3.58 g/L at STP. What is the molar mass of this gas?


The mole road map
The Mole Road Map representative particles, or 6.02x10

  • A helpful tool to figure out easily which conversion factor to use.

This can also be found on page 303 in your Chemistry book