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States, Boiling Point, Melting Point, and Solubility. Solid. Liquid. Gas. Questions. What are the 3 states of matter? Write a definition for each state?. Defining States of Matter. States of matter are NOT defined by what they are made of.

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questions
Questions
  • What are the 3 states of matter?
  • Write a definition for each state?
defining states of matter
Defining States of Matter
  • States of matter are NOT defined by what they are made of.
    • Example: solids can be elements (gold), compounds (Salt = NaCl), or mixtures (butter)

Element (Au)

Compound (NaCl)

Mixture (Milk, Salt, etc)

defining states of matter1
Defining States of Matter
  • States of matter are defined by whether they hold SHAPE and VOLUME

Element (Au)

Compound (NaCl)

Mixture (Milk, Salt, etc)

ALL KEEP THE SAME SHAPE AND VOLUME = Solids

defining states of matter2
Defining States of Matter
  • Solids – have a definite SHAPE and VOLUME.

Element (Au)

Compound (NaCl)

Mixture (Milk, Salt, etc)

ALL KEEP THE SAME SHAPE AND VOLUME

particle view of a solid
Particle View of a Solid
  • Particles in a solid are PACKED CLOSELY together and they are in a FIXED POSITION.

Particles vibrate in place

liquids
Liquids
  • Liquids – has definite VOLUME but no defined SHAPE

100 ml

particle view of a liquid
Particle View of a Liquid
  • Packed CLOSELY (like a solid), but move FREELY around each other (must stay in contact).
gases
Gases
  • Gases - do NOT have definite SHAPE or VOLUME.

Bromine gas fills up the entire volume of the container

particle view of a gas
Particle view of a Gas
  • Particles can MOVE FREELY and will either fill up or squeeze into available space.
questions1
Questions
  • 1) Which Statement is True?
    • A) Liquids have a definite shape and volume
    • B) States of matter are defined by the substances they are made up of
    • C) Gases have a definite shape and volume
    • D) Solids have a definite shape and volume
slide12
Task
  • Draw a diagram of
    • A) Gas particles
    • B) Liquid particles
    • C) Solid particles
changes in states of matter
Changes in States of Matter
  • Thermal Energy – heat energy.
  • More thermal energy = More particle movement
changing states
Changing States

Increase Thermal Energy (Heat up)

Solid

Gas

Liquid

Decrease Thermal Energy (Cool off)

melting point
Melting point
  • Melting - change from solid to liquid
  • Melting point - SPECIFIC temperature when melting occurs.
  • Each pure substance has a SPECIFIC melting point.
    • Examples:
    • M.P. of Water = 0°C (32°F)
    • M.P. of Nitrogen = -209.9 °C (-345.81998 °F)
    • M.P. of Silver = 961.93 °C (1763.474 °F)
    • M.P. of Carbon = 3500.0 °C (6332.0 °F)
melting point1
Melting Point
  • Particles of a solid vibrate so fast that they break free from their fixed positions.

Increasing Thermal Energy

Solid

Liquid

Melting point

vaporization
Vaporization
  • Vaporization – change from liquid to gas
  • Vaporization happens when particles in a liquid gain enough energy to form a gas.

Increasing Thermal Energy

Gas

Liquid

Boiling point

two kinds of vaporization
Two Kinds of Vaporization
  • Evaporation – vaporization that takes place only on the surface of the liquid
  • Boiling – when a liquid changes to a gas BELOW its surface as well as above.
boiling point
Boiling Point
  • Boiling Point – temperature at which a liquid boils
  • Each pure substance has a SPECIFIC boiling point.
    • Examples:
    • B.P. of Water = 100°C (212°F)
    • B.P. of Nitrogen = -195.79 °C (-320.42 °F)
    • B.P. of Silver = 2162 °C (3924 °F)
    • B.P. of Carbon = 4027 °C (7281 °F)
boiling point and melting point
Boiling Point and Melting Point

Boiling point

Melting point

solubility
Solubility
  • Maximum amount of a substance that can be dissolved in a liquid (at a specific temperature).

Water (H20)

at 20°C

Salt (NaCl)

solubility1
Solubility
  • Solute – substance being dissolved
  • Solvent – liquid substance that solute is dissolved into

Water (H20)

at 20°C

Salt (NaCl)

solubility2
Solubility

Salt

  • Solute – ??????
  • Solvent – ?????

Water

Water (H20)

at 20°C

Salt (NaCl)

solubility can change
Solubility can change
  • Increased Temp = Increased Solubility
  • Different substances have different solubility curves