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Ulrich Zwingli. & The Swiss Reformation. Swiss Confederation. Confederation began in 1291 Technically part of Holy Roman Empire, basically independent by 1499 Noted for its independent spirit & quality of its mercenaries. Ulrich Zwingli (1484-1531).

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ulrich zwingli

Ulrich Zwingli

& The Swiss Reformation

swiss confederation
Swiss Confederation
  • Confederation began in 1291
  • Technically part of Holy Roman Empire, basically independent by 1499
  • Noted for its independent spirit & quality of its mercenaries
ulrich zwingli 1484 1531
Ulrich Zwingli (1484-1531)
  • Born in Switzerland; son & grandson of civil magistrates; Uncle Bartholomew, parish priest
  • Latin scholar; educated in Basel, Bern, Vienna
  • Came under influence of Erasmus & humanism
early priesthood 1506 1518
Early Priesthood (1506-1518)
  • Glarus – Arranged by Uncle Bartholomew
    • Another priest sold post for 100 florins
    • Main “cash crop” was mercenaries
    • Zwingli served as chaplain, saw 10,000 killed
  • Einsiedeln – Chaplain of Shrine of Virgin
    • Preaching to pilgrims earned his reputation
    • Began to question indulgences
  • Grossmunster – Great Church of Zurich
zurich early reform
Zurich & Early Reform
  • Zurich: key city of Switzerland & important religious center
  • Pastorate: preaching, mass, visiting sick
  • Preached through books of Bible instead of prescribed Scriptures
  • Spiritual crisis: plague, brother’s death, his own sickness after ministering to victims
1522 key year
1522 – Key Year
  • “Affair of the Sausages”
    • Zwingli preached against Lenten fast
    • Zurich printer rewarded workers with sausages
    • Zwingli defended practice
1522 key year7
1522 – Key Year
  • Petition against celibacy
    • Priests petitioned bishop to legitimize relations
    • Many priests had common-law wives, concubines
    • 1500 illegitimate children fathered by priests
    • Zwingli was living with widow Anna Rinehart
first disputation jan 1523
First Disputation – Jan. 1523
  • Debate between Zwingli and Vicar General of Bishopric of Constance
  • Zwingli presented 67 Articles for church life
  • City Council supported Zwingli’s Reformation:
    • Affirmation of Scripture as basis of authority
    • Condemned corruption of Roman Catholic Church
    • Denounced: purgatory; papal office; priestly garments; priesthood; clerical celibacy; traditional mass (Lord’s Supper should be memorial)
  • Zwingli’s Reformation depended on Council
second disputation oct 1523
Second Disputation – Oct. 1523
  • Topics: Use of images; the mass; purgatory
    • Quick agreement to reject use of images
    • Purgatory was never discussed
    • Instead remainder of discussion was spent on replacing the mass with simple Lord’s Supper: magistrates delayed implementation; Zwingli’s followers insisted on immediate action; Zwingli sided with magistrates
  • No action was taken
  • Christmas Day, Zwingli did not conduct simple Lord’s Supper as planned
  • Many of his student-followers broke with Zwingli
prophecy meetings swiss brethren
Prophecy Meetings & Swiss Brethren
  • 1519, Zwingli began attracting students:
    • Conrad Grebel
    • Felix Manz
    • George Blaurock
  • At Prophecy Meetings, studied NT in Greek
  • Study led to rejection of infant baptism & support of believer’s baptism
  • When this reform was rejected by Council, Zwingli backed down
third disputation jan 1525
Third Disputation – Jan. 1525
  • Zwingli attempted to suppress Swiss Brethren at public disputation on baptism
  • Zwingli coined term “Anabaptists”: Re-baptizers
  • Decision: Brethren to stop meeting & have children baptized or leave in 8 days
  • Brethren defied Zwingli & Council, were baptized as believers & were persecuted
zwingli on church state
Zwingli on Church-State
  • State-church in Zurich:Reformation depended uponsupport from Council
  • Christian Civic Union: allied with other Swiss cantons to spread Reformation
zwingli on baptism
Zwingli on Baptism
  • Adhered to infant baptism
  • Nature of baptism
    • Infants are not guilty
    • Baptism not necessary for salvation
    • Infant was elect; in covenant community
  • Predestination
    • Fit his view of infant baptism, which was sign of covenant for those elected by God
    • Covenant concept of church
  • Used OT to show that baptism is NT parallel to circumcision
zwingli on lord s supper
Zwingli on Lord’s Supper
  • Easter 1525, Zwingli observed “evangelical” Lord’s Supper
    • Advocated symbolic view of Lord’s Supper
    • Taught that bread & cup were signs or symbols to be observed in remembrance & thanksgiving for Christ’s sacrifice
    • Holy Spirit uses these signs/symbols to testify that participants are joined in true & spiritual way to resurrected & ascended Christ; but Christ was not actually present in elements of Supper
zwingli as reformed spokesman
Zwingli as Reformed Spokesman
  • 1529, Marburg Colloquy: met with Luther for alliance against Catholics; no agreement on Lord’s Supper (Zwingli – memorial; Luther – real presence)

1530, Augsburg Diet: Swiss Churches presented their own articles

zwingli s contribution to reformed churches
Zwingli’s Contribution to Reformed Churches
  • Zwingli set out goal & early model
  • Creation of disciplined people of God governed by biblical principles required extensive reform of doctrine, worship, church government & entire society
  • Laws enforcing state church’s worship were based on precedent of Israel & OT laws on religion & civil matters
  • Infant baptism, like OT circumcision, included children in covenant community
zwingli s contribution to reformed churches17
Zwingli’s Contribution to Reformed Churches
  • Biblical lessons became focus of worship
  • Worship attendance was mandatory
  • Music & organs, images removed from churches
  • Tight control on moral behavior; curfew
  • Religious uniformity strictly enforced; deviation considered treasonous; Anabaptist targeted especially
zwingli s writings 1525
Zwingli’s Writings (1525)
  • On Baptism, Anabaptism and Infant Baptism
    • Baptism is sign of covenant: infant baptism is NT expression of circumcision
    • OT is precedent for covenant community
  • Commentary on True and False Religion
    • Lord’s Supper is symbolic remembrance
  • On Human and Divine Justice
    • Union of Church & State
zwingli s death
Zwingli’s Death
  • Second Kappel War (1531)
    • Protestants blockaded routes to Catholic cantons
    • Protestant cantons did not unite; Catholics did
    • Catholics attacked Zurich
      • Catholics won; routed Zurich army
      • Zwingli died
      • Catholics strengthened hold on 5 Catholic cantons, which remain Catholic to this day
heinrich bullinger 1504 75
Heinrich Bullinger (1504-75)
  • Successor & spokesman for Zwinglian viewpoint after 1531
  • Influenced refugee Protestant leaders who relocated in Zurich
  • Drafted Helvetic (Swiss) Confession, basic doctrinal standard for Reformed churches in Europe (1536, 1566)
heinrich bullinger 1504 7521
Heinrich Bullinger (1504-75)
  • Negotiated with John Calvin for accord uniting German-speaking & French-speaking Reformed churches (Consensus Tigurinus, 1549)
  • Wrote historical & theological works defending Reformation & Protestantism (i.e. The Decades)
johann oecolampadius 1482 1531
Johann Oecolampadius (1482-1531)
  • Led Reform in Basel
  • Humanist, Hebrew scholar, commentator on Scripture
  • Elaborated concept of “covenant” community as model for Reformed city
  • Advocated use of elders to help pastors in providing spiritual oversight
berchtold haller 1492 1536
Berchtold Haller (1492-1536)
  • By 1528, led Reform in Bern, political & military center of Protestant reform among Swiss & capital of Swiss Confederation
  • Supported French-speaking Reformed church development in Geneva, Neuchatel & Lausanne
martin bucer 1491 1551
Martin Bucer (1491-1551)
  • Strasbourg: located outside of Swiss Confederation; refugee center until 1548; leading intellectual center for Reformed churches
  • Reform led by Bucer: Humanist scholar, Bible commentator & theologian, implementer of Reformed models
martin bucer 1491 155125
Martin Bucer (1491-1551)
  • Pursued middle way or moderate approach to accommodate Lutheran & Schmalkaldic League positions with Swiss Reformed positions
  • Effort to recruit English church leaders into united Protestant church effort
  • Thomas Cranmer invited Bucer to England to assist in English Reformation