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Twice Exceptional - Gifted and Learning Disabled

Twice Exceptional - Gifted and Learning Disabled

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Twice Exceptional - Gifted and Learning Disabled

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  1. Twice Exceptional - Gifted and Learning Disabled Presented by: Rebecca L. Mann Coordinator of Gifted and Talented Services Bow Elementary School Bow, NH

  2. Definition of Giftedness United States Office of Education definition of Gifted and Talented Students "those who have outstanding abilities, are capable of high performance and who require differentiated educational programs (beyond those normally provided by regular school programs) in order to realize their contribution to self and society." Twice Exceptional - Gifted and Learning Disabled

  3. Twice Exceptional - Gifted and Learning Disabled Characteristics of Giftedness Reasons well Learns rapidly Extensive vocabulary Excellent memory Long attention span Sensitive Compassionate Perfectionistic Intense Morally sensitive Strongly curious Perseveres in interests High degree of energy Prefers older companions Wide range of interests Great sense of humor Avid reader Concerned with justice Mature judgment Keen observer Vivid imagination Highly creative Tends to question authority

  4. Twice Exceptional - Gifted and Learning Disabled Definition of Learning Disabilities Public Law 94 - 142 "a child has a severe discrepancy between achievement and intellectual ability in one or more of the following areas: (I) oral expression (ii) listening comprehension (iii) written expression (iv) basic reading skill (v) reading comprehension (vi) mathematics reasoning "disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or using language, spoken or written, which may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell or do mathematical calculations."

  5. Twice Exceptional - Gifted and Learning Disabled A Learning Disability is a neurological/physiological difference in the way the brain is organized. The U.S. Department of Education, in a written response to questions from the Learning Disabilities Association of North Carolina, states that, "...each child who is evaluated for a suspected learning disability must be measured against his or her own expected performance, and not against some arbitrary general standard."

  6. Characteristics of Twice Exceptional Learners Twice Exceptional - Gifted and Learning Disabled Signs of GiftednessSigns of Learning Disabilities ~excellent long-term memory ~poor short-term memory ~extensive vocabulary ~speaking vocabulary more sophisticated than written ~ excels in reading comprehension ~struggles with decoding words ~excels in mathematical reasoning ~does poorly at computation ~advanced verbal skills in discussions ~refuses to do written work ~facile with computers ~handwriting is illegible ~grasps abstract concepts ~has difficulty with spelling and phonics ~performs better with challenging work ~struggles with easy, sequential material ~thrives on complexity ~difficulty with rote memorization ~highly creative, imaginative ~often inattentive in class ~reasons well ~emotions can overpower reasoning ~is a keen observer ~poor auditory memory ~may have acute hearing ~poor listening skills ~has very interesting ideas, extremely curious ~weak in language mechanics ~had high degree of energy ~may be unable to learn unless interested ~perceptive ~performs poorly on timed tests ~insightful (seems "wise") ~hopelessly disorganized ~excellent sense of humor ~finds clever ways to avoid weak areas ~may excel at art, science, geometry, ~may fail at foreign languages and subjects mechanics, technology, or music emphasizing audition, sequencing, memory (Silverman)

  7. Strengths vs. Deficiencies Strengths Deficiencies Thinking Abilities Self Expression High Creativity Organizational Abilities Long-term Memory Short-term Memory Abstractions Sense Perceptions (distractibility, static on the auditory channel, sensori-motor) Problem Solving Social Interactions Insight Self-esteem (Coleman, 1996) Organizational Difficulties can be: Thoughts going in Thoughts coming out Stuff Time Twice Exceptional - Gifted and Learning Disabled

  8. Indicators of Ability - Achievement Discrepancy • Look for kids whose performance varies significantly in different areas. • Look beyond test scores. • WISC • Studies have shown no consistent pattern in twice exceptional students • There may be a discrepancy between Verbal and Performance IQ but it is much • more important to look at the subtests. • There is a tendency for twice exceptional children to have: • Trouble with: Arithmetic, Digit Span, Coding • sometimes: Picture Completion • High scores in: Comprehension, Vocabulary • often: Information, Similarities, • Picture Arrangement, and Block Design • Divergent answers bring down the score. Twice exceptional • children tend to elaborate during testing. That is their way of • demonstrating their knowledge or creativity. Twice Exceptional - Gifted and Learning Disabled

  9. Twice Exceptional - Gifted and Learning Disabled Categories of Twice Exceptional Learners Identified Gifted - Unidentified Learning Disabled Unidentified Gifted - Unidentified Learning Disabled Unidentified Gifted - Identified Learning Disabled

  10. Twice Exceptional - Gifted and Learning Disabled Identified Gifted - Unidentified Learning Disabled ~good verbal skills ~poor spelling and/or handwriting ~disorganized in their classwork ~discrepancies between strengths and weaknesses widen as they grow older ~often viewed as "underachieving" ~if identified LD - tremendous weight lifted off their shoulders ~often passed over for LD support because they are achieving at grade level

  11. Twice Exceptional - Gifted and Learning Disabled Unidentified Gifted - Unidentified Learning Disabled ~bright enough to compensate for their learning disability ~usually appear as average students ~usually recognize their giftedness and disability as adults ~need occasions where they can show their superior thinking in creative ways ~LD masks gifts and gifts mask LD ~often gifts emerge in specific content areas or in learning environments where non-traditional methods are used

  12. Twice Exceptional - Gifted and Learning Disabled Unidentified Gifted - Identified Learning Disabled ~usually excel in an area of interest ~disability depresses their intellectual performance ~good reasoning and thinking skills detected by teachers and/or parents ~first noticed for what they cannot do ~most "at risk" because the LD label tends to have a focus on deficits ~focus is so much on their disability it is difficult for them to give themselves credit for their abilities ~often have incredible projects in the works at home

  13. Gifted Learning Disabled or Underachievement? Just because a gifted student is not producing does not mean he or she is learning disabled. Other reasons for underachievement: Unrealistic expectations by others May seek rewards in different environments Motivation, interest, and specific aptitude influence the amount of effort Student's self-expectations can be too high (a task may never be able to be completed to perfection) Student may have a conflict with the school value system i.e. grades are trivial May have never learned study skills due to ease of curriculum in earlier grades Social or emotional problems (Baum, 1991) Twice Exceptional - Gifted and Learning Disabled

  14. ADHD vs. Gifted ADHD (DSM-IV, 1994) G/T (Silverman, 1993) ~difficulty with sustained attention, daydreaming ~poor attention, often due to boredom, daydreaming ~failure to concentrate unless in one-to-one ~lack of persistence on tasks that seem irrelevant ~failure to complete independent activities ~task completion often reliant on personal interests ~ability to listen attentively seems diminished ~often appears bored during discussions ~messy, disorganized environment ~possible disinterest in organization ~impulsivity, poor judgment in situations ~judgment lags behind intellectual development ~problems adhering to rules for regulating behavior ~intensity possibly leading to struggles with authority ~activity level often heightened ~frequently high activity ~trouble following directions ~questions rules, directions Twice Exceptional - Gifted and Learning Disabled

  15. ADHD HIGHLY CREATIVE ~often fails to finish tasks, ~broad range of interest often especially those demanded externally prohibits task completion ~distractible but not in all situations ~great attention in self-selected work ~frequent shifts in activities ~labile and sometimes erratic ~does not appear to listen ~hypomanic to the point of not listening ~daydreams ~imaginative ~often misplaces items needed for work completion ~so preoccupied as often to overlook the concrete ~difficulty organizing work ~finds order amidst chaos ~needs a lot of supervision in order to meet ~freedom of spirit that rejects externally deadlines imposed limits ~excessive activity ~high energy level ~often engages in challenges without ~willing to take risks in order to satisfy considering consequences plans for creative pursuits ~frequently acts without thinking ~often impulsive in actions ~solitary activities often preferred ~independent often preferring to be alone ~social interactions may be negative ~little interest in relationships ~talks while tackling tasks ~self-talk during creative work ~prone to rapid changes in mood ~often experiences emotional variability (Cramond, 1994) Twice Exceptional - Gifted and Learning Disabled

  16. Is it ADHD or Giftedness? Does the child show these behaviors at home? Could a lack of interest or relevancy play a part? Is the child unable to concentrate even when interested in the subject? Have any curricular modifications been made in an attempt to change the behaviors? Has the child been interviewed? What are his or her feelings about the behaviors? Does the child feel out of control? Do the parents perceive the child to be out of control? Has the child been taught strategies to limit stimuli and deal with stress? Has the child been taught appropriate social skills? Can the "inattentive" child repeat the instructions? Do the behaviors occur at certain times of the day, during certain subjects, with certain teachers, in certain environments and not in other circumstances? Is the child getting the appropriate amount of teacher attention? Does the child demand constant attention from the teacher? Is the child just demonstrating his or her personality, type of giftedness, or intensity? (Lind and Silverman, 1994) Twice Exceptional - Gifted and Learning Disabled

  17. Strategies for Teaching the Twice Exceptional Student NURTURE GIFTS, RESPECT CHILD Curricular Needs Differentiation Challenging material at advanced level Interdisciplinary Don't make everything a secret Language Arts lesson Make the curriculum relevant Provide an individually paced curriculum in areas of giftedness and disability Using strengths to compensate for weaknesses Find a mentor in the child’s area of interest who likes child Find the child’s interest area and use that area to remediate Love sharks + poor reader = start with books about sharks Twice Exceptional - Gifted and Learning Disabled

  18. Strategies for Teaching the Twice Exceptional Student Accommodations Books on tape AlphaSmart or other word processor Spell checker/spelling guide Inspiration software Assisted note taking Computers for instruction Study guides Highlight in different colors Yellow for spelling errors Pink for grammar errors Gather information through interviews, videos, experiments, visitations Options for communicating ideas Slides, models, speeches, mime, mural, video production Avoid rote memorization and timed tests Tape lectures Calculator Oral tests Abbreviate written assignments Allow extra time for assignments and tests Twice Exceptional - Gifted and Learning Disabled

  19. Strategies for Teaching the Twice Exceptional Student Teaching Strategies Equate success with effort Promote active inquiry involving discussion and experimentation Provide open-ended challenges that require divergent thinking Offer options that enable child to use his strengths and learning style Incorporate projects that investigate real problems and have real audiences Highlight abstract thinking Design enrichment activities to circumvent weaknesses Provide options to all students so child doesn't feel singled out Encourage looking for relationships and patterns Create a supportive environment Model celebrating individual differences Minimize "teacher talk" Use mnemonics for concepts requiring recall Encourage visualization Get eye contact before speaking Teach goal setting Independent Projects in area of interest Teach child how to break down project into parts Allow child opportunity to share with class - showcase the talent Twice Exceptional - Gifted and Learning Disabled

  20. Strategies for Teaching the Twice Exceptional Student Counseling Provide emotional support Teach child to be his or her own advocate If possible, have child work with group of other twice exceptional students Help child become aware of strengths and weaknesses Teach social skills Find role models Organizational Strategies Color code book covers and notebooks Graphic organizers Create flow charts Colored stickers on desk Red for turn in homework Yellow for put homework in backpack Blue for take lunchbox home Twice Exceptional - Gifted and Learning Disabled

  21. Strategies for Teaching the Twice Exceptional Student Time management How long do you think it will take? Have student time himself or herself. Use egg timer Get watch with alarm Strategies for parents Take photos of things to remember and tape to the back of the door or mirror Rearrange room to make it practical Find a tutor - don't be the homework heavy - celebrate child's gifts Work with the school to create a supportive team Be a role model Focus on effort, not grades Do not allow child to use learning disability as an excuse Expect child to use skills; have child do practical tasks (I.e. thank you notes) Twice Exceptional - Gifted and Learning Disabled

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