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The Strong Force. Announcements Exam#3 next Monday. (Bring your calculator) HW10 will be posted today. Solutions will be posted Thurs. afternoon (I’m not collecting HW#10) Q&A session on Sunday at 5 pm . Tentative course grades will be posted by Tuesday evening.

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the strong force
The Strong Force
  • Announcements
  • Exam#3 next Monday. (Bring your calculator)
  • HW10 will be posted today. Solutions will be posted Thurs. afternoon (I’m not collecting HW#10)
  • Q&A session on Sunday at 5 pm.
  • Tentative course grades will be posted by Tuesday evening.
  • You can do no worse than this grade if you skip the final (but you could do better if you take it)
  • Final Exam, Friday, May 210:15 – 12:15 in Stolkin.
the strong force2
The Strong Force

Why do protons & protons, protons & neutrons, andneutrons & neutrons all bind together in the nucleusof an atom?

Electromagnetic? No, this would cannot cause protons to bind to one another.Gravity ? NO, way too feeble (even weaker than EM force)

Need a force which: A) Can overcome the electrical repulsion between protons.

B) Is ‘blind’ to electric charge (i.e., neutrons bind to other neutrons!)

Quantum theory of EM Interactions is incredibly precise. That is, thetheoretical calculations agree with experimental observations toincredible accuracy.

 Build a similar theory of the strong interaction, based on force carriers

charge

e

u

Electric charge = +2/3

Electric charge = -1

Which of these might you expect experiences a larger electricalrepulsion?

u

u

e

e

‘Charge’

What does it really mean for a particle to have electric charge ?

It means the particle has an attribute which allows it to talk to (or ‘couple to’) the photon, the mediator of the electromagnetic interaction.

The ‘strength’ of the interaction depends on the amount of charge.

strong force color

u

u

u

Strong Force & Color

We hypothesize that in addition to the attribute of ‘electric charge’,quarks have another attribute known as ‘color charge’, or just ‘color’for short. The attribute’s name, color, is just by convention. It’s easyto visualize this attribute and how colors combine…(coming up)

The property of color allows quarks to talk to the mediator of the strong interaction, the gluon (g).

Unlike electric charge, we find (experimentally) that there are 3 values for color: We assign these possible values of color to be: red, green, blue

Also, unlike Electromagnetism, we find that the carrier of the strongforce carries ‘color charge’. Recall the photon is electrically neutral!

color of hadrons

BARYONS

q1

q2

RED + BLUE + GREEN = “WHITE” or “COLORLESS”

q3

MESONS

q

q

q

GREEN + ANTIGREEN = “COLORLESS”RED + ANTIRED = “COLORLESS”

BLUE + ANTIBLUE = “COLORLESS”

Color of Hadrons

A meson can be any one of these combinations !

Hadrons observed in nature are colorless (but there constituents are not)

color of gluons
Color of Gluons

Each of the 8 color combinationshave a “color” and an “anti-color”

Don’tworryaboutwhat thismeans

color exchange
Color Exchange
  • Quarks interact by the exchange of a gluon.
  • Since gluons carry color charge, it is fair to say that the interaction between quarks results in the exchange of color (or color charge, if you prefer) !
interactions through exchange of color charge

Emission of Gluon

InitiallyAfter gluon emission

RED RED-ANTIGREEN + GREEN

(quark) (gluon) (quark)

Re-absorption of Gluon

Before gluon absorptionAfter gluon absorption

RED-ANTIGREEN + GREEN  RED

(gluon) (quark) (quark)

Interactions through Exchange of Color Charge
gluons important points

q

e+

This cannot happen, becausethe gluon does not interact withobjects unless they have color charge! Leptons do not have color charge !

g

e -

Gluons – Important Points
  • Gluons are the “force carrier” of the strong force.
  • They only interact with object which have color, or color charge.
  • Therefore, gluons cannot interact with leptonsbecause leptons do not have color charge !
feynman diagrams for the strong interaction
Feynman Diagrams forthe Strong Interaction
  • As before, we can draw Feynman diagrams to represent the strong interactions between quarks.
  • The method is more or less analogous to the case of EM interactions.
  • When drawing Feynman diagrams, we don’t show theflow of color charge (oh goody). It’s understood to be occurring though.
  • Let’s look at a few Feynman diagrams…
feynman diagrams quark scattering
Feynman Diagrams (Quark Scattering)

u

Quark-antiquarkAnnihilation

g

d

Quark-quarkScattering

Could also beQuark-antiquarkScatteringorAntiquark-antiquarkScattering

u

u

Position

g

d

d

time

flashback to em interactions

This can’t happen because the photononly interacts withelectrically chargedobjects !

g

g

g

g

g

Flashback to EM Interactions

Recall that photons do not interact with each other.Why?

Because photons only interact with objects which have electric charge, and photons do not have electric charge !

but gluons have color charge
BUT GLUONS HAVE COLOR CHARGE !!!

Gluons carry the “charge” of the strong force, which is “color charge”, or just “color” !

ok so here s where it gets hairy

Gluon-gluon Scattering

Gluon-gluon Fusion

g

g

g

g

g

g

g

g

g

g

Ok, so here’s where it gets hairy!

Since gluons carry “color charge”, they can interact with each other !(Photons can’t do that)

and quark gluon interactions as well

Quark-AntiquarkAnnihilation

Quark-gluon Scattering

u

g

d

d

g

g

g

g

u

g

And quark-gluon interactions as well!

Since both quarks and gluons have color, they can interact witheach other !!!

where do the gluons come from

Proton

u

u

d

~10-15 [m]

Where do the gluons come from ?
  • The gluons are all overinside hadrons!!
  • In fact there are a lot more than shown here !!!
  • Notice sizes here:

In fact quarks are < 1/1000th of the size of the proton, so they are still too big in this picture !

  • Even protons and neutronsare mostly empty space !!!
confinement
Confinement

Since the strong force increases as quarks move apart, they can only get so far…The quarks are confined together inside hadrons.Hadron jail !

hadronization process of forming hadrons

Hadrons!

K-

s

K+

u

u

d

p-

d

d

d

d

p0

d

Hadronization (process of forming hadrons)

As quarks move apart, the potentialenergy stored in the “spring”increases, until its large enough, to‘snap’ and convert its potentialenergy into mass energy (qq pairs)

In this way, you can see that quarksare always confined inside hadrons(that’s CONFINEMENT) !

what holds the nucleus together
What holds the nucleus together?

The strong force !

  • Inside the nucleus, the attractive strong force is stronger thanthe repulsive electromagnetic force.
  • Protons and neutrons both “experience” the strong force.
  • The actual binding that occurs between proton-proton andproton-neutron and neutron-neutron is the residual of the strong interaction between the constituent quarks.
food for thought
Food for thought

Recall: Mass of Proton ~ 938 [MeV/c2]

Proton constituents:

2 up quarks: 2 * (5 [MeV/c2]) = 10 [MeV/c2]

1 down quark: 1 * 10 [MeV/c2] = 10 [MeV/c2]

Total quark mass in proton: ~ 20 [MeV/c2]

Where’s all the rest of the mass ?????

It’s incorporated in the binding energy associated with the gluons !

 ~98% of our mass comes from glue-ons !!!!

summary i
Summary (I)
  • The property which gives rise to the strong force is “color charge”
  • There are 3 types of colors, RED, GREEN and BLUE.
  • Quarks have color charge, and interact via the mediator of thestrong force, the gluon.
  • The gluon is massless like the photon, but differs dramaticallyin that:
    • It has color charge
    • It’s force acts over a very short range (inside the nucleus)
summary ii
Summary (II)
  • Because gluons carry color charge, they can interact among themselves.
  • Quarks and gluons are confined inside hadrons because of the nature of the strong force.
  • Only ~50% of a proton’s energy is carried by the quarks. Theremaining 50% is carried by gluons.
  • We learn about the strong force by hadron-hadron scatteringexperiments.