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TEMS Training. Jakarta, 16 Desember 2006. Data Mentor. Nama : Andu Hanindyo Posisi Terakhir : Drive Test dan IBS Engineer Spesialis : In Building Solution, Drive Test Pengalaman Kerja : - 2002-2006 : Drive test engineer untuk Indosat, Telkomsel

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tems training

TEMS Training

Jakarta, 16 Desember 2006

data mentor
Data Mentor
  • Nama : Andu Hanindyo
  • Posisi Terakhir : Drive Test dan IBS Engineer
  • Spesialis : In Building Solution, Drive Test
  • Pengalaman Kerja :

- 2002-2006 : Drive test engineer untuk Indosat, Telkomsel

- 2005-2006 : IBS Engineer untuk Telkomsel, site audit



what’s TEMS


drive testing highlight

mode of drive test


TEMS to see how the network runs

the use

what to see what to measure






TEMS = Test Mobile System

Product byERICSSON

Solution Tools for Wireless Network to Plan, optimized,

and expand their systems.

A Test tool use to read and control information sent over the air

Interface between the base station and the mobile station in GSM

/cellular system. It can also used for radio coverage measurement




Network Monitoring

Product of TEMS

  • TEMS Transmitter
  • TEMS Light
  • TEMS Indoor
  • TEMS Investigation
  • TEMS Deskcat
  • TEMS Drive Tester
  • TEMS Pocket
  • TEMS CellPlanner
  • TEMS LinkPlanner
  • TEMS Automatic

Network Planning

  • TEMS Automatic
  • TEMS CellSight
  • TEMS Visualization

Real Time Diagnosis

Network Performance Management














  • TEMS Investigation version:
  • TEMS Classic/98 : SH888; post process with 3rd-party-s/w
  • TEMS 2 : R230; post process with 3rd-party-s/w
  • TEMS 3 : R520; post process with 3rd-party-s/w
  • TEMS 4 : T68; export from TEMS
  • TEMS 5 : T610; export from TEMS
  • TEMS 6 : various handset; data collection & route analysis
  • TEMS 7 : various handset; data collection & route analysis



As Drive Test Tools


Drive Test = Testing the network in particular area

to give the real picture of the network’s

performance on the field, with a certain tools.

Drive Test

Michael pipikakis

Evaluating and Improving

The Quality of Service of

Second Generation Cellular





As Drive Test Tools


Drive test






As Drive Test Tools


Drive Test Equipments

Notes :

-power supply needed, usually using inverter in the car from laptop, GPS and MS

-GPS should use external antenna

-MS can use external antenna or not use external antenna.

(Use external antenna means measure RxLevel “Pedestrian / Street Level”)

(Not use external antenna means measure RxLevel “ In car level) -> more realistic result

If using scenario not external antenna, MS position should be carefully chosen and stable during drive test


As Drive Test Tools


  • Dedicated / Continuous / Long Call Mode

Making continuous call along drive test activity.

Before starting the route, call the drive test number, ex. 199 for Telkomsel,

And only stop the call when the route (drive test) finish.

To see the quality and coverage of the network


As Drive Test Tools


  • Idle Mode

Along the drive test activity, the MS is “ON” but no call occur

To see the coverage of the network


As Drive Test Tools


  • Sequential / Qos / Short Call Mode

Creating the sequence of call along the drive test activity

Before starting the route create call sequence, for example:

Create call for 70 s and idle for 10 s.

Along the drive test, play this sequence until the route is finished

To see the real network performance run, when people call


As Drive Test Tools


  • one of TEMS feature
  • scan all or selected frequencies on the selected spot or route
  • to find the clearest frequency
  • Application of frequency plan
  • to find the best frequency to be use in the site
  • to identify interference adjacent channel and co channel

Clean Frequency


To See How the Network Runs


  • In PLANNING works:
  • Drive Test Before Installation
  • Perform drive test before “our” network implemented. This data later will be compared with drive test after implementation, to justify.
  • Drive Test Before SWAP
  • Before swap (change operator network), drive testing needed to compare the current network with the network after swap. To justify the new network is better than before.
  • Drive Test Benchmarking
  • Drive test the whole area for the whole active networks, before ‘our’ network implemented. So when ‘our’ network implemented, can be competed well.
  • etc

To See How the Network Runs


  • In Implementation Works:
  • Drive Test New Site/ Initial Drive Test
  • Initiate the drive test after a site on-air. Make sure that site perform well after on-air.
  • Test Call New Site
  • Conducting tests call at a new “On-Air” site, to justify the performance of a site just after “On-Air”.
  • Drive Test Upgrade/Expand TRX
  • After implement new TRX or expand TRX, a drive test performed to justify that site working well with the new TRX.
  • Drive Test SFH/Hopping implementation
  • After implement SFH/hopping in the network, a drive test performed to justify that this hopping solution working well with the whole network.
  • etc

To See How the Network Runs


  • In Optimization works:
  • Drive Test Handover/ Add & Delete neighbors
  • Drive test conducted after there’s changing in neighbours database. Make sure the “add” really added and the “delete” really deleted.
  • Drive Test before & after Downtilt
  • Downtilt conducting, to get better coverage from each antenna. Drive test performed to make sure the better coverage from each angle changed.
  • Drive Test Network Audit
  • Performing drive test activity to maintain the whole network. Could be an annual work.
  • Drive Test Benchmark
  • performing drive test to get justification about ‘our’ network. Can compete or not. With comparing the whole network including 'us’ in drive test.
  • Drive Test troubleshooting
  • Drive test for special troubleshooting case. Such as, a site that cannot handover from sites surround it, a site that cannot transmit good signal and cannot achieve its coverage.
  • etc,
How TEMS works?

Several measurement is only available and recorded in idle mode (C1,C2 etc)

Several measurement is only available and recorded in dedicated mode (RxQual, SQI, FER etc)

This is happen because of GSM system network works, not because setting in TEMS

There are several option/feature can be activated by user (force handover, lock handover etc) which change TEMS measurement behavior


In GSM network there are a lot of parameters which change the network behavior, it is make the network very flexible.

Due to this reason, TEMS has ability to monitor network with parameters on (FULL mode) and with parameters off (SUB mode) for such as RxLev and RxQual.





  • When using FULL measurement result?

Whenever we want to see BTS parameters settings works at live network

DTX off

  • When using SUB measurement result ?

Whenever we want to see BTS works without parameters

DTX on

  • How TEMS measure FULL or SUB measurement?

TEMS record both SUB and FULL measurement at the same time and at the same log files, it is just need to set what we wan to see in replay mode.


To See How the Network Runs


Parameters to See

1. RxLevel

Level of Received signal strength. In dBm or Steps. If the value in form of step substract 110 to the value to get dBm value.

RxLevel is received power level at MS (maximum RxLevel measured by MS is (±)– 40 dBm


2. RxQual

Received signal quality level, measured base on BER (bit error rate).

The value is between 0-7, the lower the better.



3. SQI

  • The parameter used by TEMS to measure Speech Quality.
  • SQI has been designed to cover all factors that RxQual lack to measure.
  • SQI computation considers the factors:
  • the bit error rate (BER)
  • the frame erasure rate (FER)
  • data on handover events
  • statistics on the distribution of these parameters



To See How the Network Runs


  • 4. Others
  • FER
  • Frame erasure rate
  • Hopping
  • SFH
  • C/I
  • Interference
  • TA
  • Time Advance
  • C1
  • Path loss criterion parameter
  • C2
  • Cell reselection criterion parameter in hierarchical cell structure

4. Others

  • FER  Frame erasure rate; See on “Radio Parameter” windows
  • ARFCN BCCH-BSIC  Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Number of Broadcast Control Channel.
  •  Base Station Identity Code
  •  Important data of a site
  • Hopping  Indicating if SFH implemented. See on “Current Channel” windows, on ‘hopping channel, hopping frequencies, MAIO, HSN’
  • C/I
  • The carrier-over-interference ratio is the ratio between the signal strength of the current serving cell and the signal strength of undesired (interfering) signal components. The C/I measurement function built into TEMS Investigation enables the identification of frequencies that are exposed to particularly high levels of interference, something which comes in useful in the verification and optimization of frequency plans.
  • TA
  • Timing Advance. Valid only in dedicated mode. ; To measure the distance of MS from serving cell. Valid only in dedicated mode. See on “Radio Parameter” windows.
  • C1  criteria used for cell selection and cell reselection
  • C2  criteria used for cell reselection

To See How the Network Runs


The examples of How Drive Test can see a Network runs.


To See How the Network Runs


  • BTS Down
  • Get in to the site (whether it’s new or existing), then see on TEMS display,
  • At parameters BCCH, BSIC. If the intended site’s BCCH doesn’t appear, the site is Down
  • If we don’t have the site data. We can go the exact position of the site, near/under the antenna.
  • Then see if on the serving cell, the Rxlev is good ( above -60 dBm)

To See How the Network Runs


2. Handover

  • We need to check the handover between sector1 of Site A to sector3 of Site B.
  • We start at the Site A. Check the parameters on TEMS. Make sure the serving cell now
  • Is from the sector1 of site A. See the neighbour, if the sector3 of site B appear.
  • Start the drive test, with dedicated mode, to site B sector3 (specified the route first).
  • The handover should be occur along this drive test. If it’s not, note this as a problem.
  • See any possibility of the problem, such as:
  • the neighbour not appear, possibility haven’t been created
  • there’s other site between
  • there’s obstacle
  • Then do the opposite, start from sector3 Site B to sector1 Site A.

To See How the Network Runs


3. Swap Feeder

There’s a possibility that we have bad installation, for example swap feeder.

Swap feeder occur when the installation switch by mistake, for example the feeder to sector1

Became to sector 2, from BTS.

We can see this from drive test.

For example, we have a site with 2 sectors, with a road in front it, to be covered.

We should have the data of this site, such as the BCCH of each sectors.

We start the drive test from sector 1 to sector 2. While we’re on sector1 coverage, see if the

BCCH of serving cell is the correct one, according to the data we have.

And do the opposite from sector 2 coverage to sector1




To See How the Network Runs


4. Overshoot

When we get the signal from the site that not close to the current area drive test.

Usually we get bad RxQual and long/bigger TA.

We can suspect this as a overshoot case. This case happen when a site/cell is serving far

away from its area.



  • Drive Test Types
  • Drive Test Continuous Route
  • Drive Test is walk/ drive along the route non stop
  • Hot Spots Measurement
  • Drive Test only at certain spot (usually critical point), TEMS standing still, no movement for 1-5 minutes but still recording.
  • Usually for scanning frequency or to investigate more detailed network behaviour


  • Drive Test Guideline
  • Preparation
  • Don’t go to the field without a good preparation. Prepare the tools completeness, maps, cars, scenarios, sites data, knowing area we are heading to.
  • Check Tools
  • Beside checking the tools completeness. Also check each tools if it’s working well, such as the GPS, inverter, handset, including SIM card.
  • Some Rules
  • - Avoid to have the same route twice, or go on the same road twice.
  • - Beware of certain area, such as restricted area, one way street, traffic jam streets.
  • - Create simple/effective way of scenarios, where to start until finishing the route.
  • - Good cooperation with driver.
  • - Make sure the roads on the route, can represent the whole network as samples.
  • Pay Attention
  • Even if we’re only collecting data, we must focus on our activity. Avoid the things that can make us re-drive test , such as, data cable unplugged from its MS, forget to turn-off the GPRS mode when we don’t need GPRS to measure, run out GPS batteries, forget to record, forget the purpose of the drive test, assure the data collected is right, pay attention of car speed, create notes for special events, etc.
  • Reporting and Analysis
  • TEMS can divided as two, data collection and analysis. After drive test on the field, we must provide data to be analyze and reported. Make sure we can create a good report and analyze well, by performing all of the points above.


  • Reporting Guidelines
  • Drive test report basically can be divided as two: Plot and Statistic.



Before we can create the report, make sure we have the right standard for each value reported. Such as how many ranges the treshold of RxLevel, and RxQual. The color ranges of SQI and FER, etc.
  • Export the right data for Plotting. To create Plot report, for example we need the logfile to be mapinfo files. Make sure we have TEMS 4 above, that can directly export the logfile into mapinfo file. Or, if we have TEMS 3 below, make sure we have third-party software that can create it, such as GIMS.

For statistic report, usually we only need the excel file and some of mapinfo data.

  • Each version of TEMS investigation can export the logfile into text file, *.fmt. This
  • format can open , and manage with Microsoft Excel.
  • 5. Following the standard report of the customers.

Layer 3 Messages

  • To Monitor the event and signaling sent and received by Phone
  • List Messages of event and signaling
  • Often use in analysis, after Drive Test
  • completed
  • -Replay the logfile, click a point on the
  • route marker on map window,
  • then see on layer 3 messages windows,
  • detailed information on the
  • associated messages appears in this window
  • -Can double-click each list message from
  • that window to open a new window
  • displaying the full contents of the message.

Scanning Function inside TEMS

TEMS Investigation supports scanning of radio frequency carriers (channels),

using either a ordinary TEMS mobile station or a dedicated frequency scanner mobile, the TEMS Scanner.

Scanning is handled from the Frequency Scanner window, and here the output of the scan is displayed, too


Scanning Function inside TEMS


In the Frequency Scanner window, choose the unit to use as scanner in the combo box.

Click the Measurement Settings button.

The channel selection is handled from the Scanned channels tab:

  • Selecting Channels

Checking "Decode BSIC" causes the Base Station Identity Code to be decoded. It will be shown in the table to the right in the Frequency Scanner window


Scanning Function inside TEMS

  • Performing Scan
  • Presenting Scan

To start scanning, click the Start Scanning button.

While the scanning is going on, the status bar shows the padlock symbol , indicating that the scanner is busy.

To stop scanning, click the Stop Scanning button.

  • Bar Chart
  • Line Chart
  • Table

Scanning Function inside TEMS

  • After Process / Report
  • Plot
  • Spreedsheet
  • Directly capture
  • Export to Mapinfo
  • Export to text (.fmt), open and process with Excel spreedsheet


  • Life time MS measurement equipment maximum 1 year, if more than 1 year need to be re-calibrate
  • Calibration MS’s cost almost the same price buy a new one
  • Ericsson only support 2 version below for re-calibrate (eq : latest version is TEMS 7.0, means only can re-calibrate handset at version 5)
  • If MS not calibrated or buy a new one, it will impact into the measurement (such as RxLevel and RxQual) will reduced and not valid => KPI will not achived
  • TEMS always have bugs (even latest version) both coming from software or from type MS itself, need knowledge to anticipated it (such as wrong RxLevel recorded)

HINTS for PC/Laptop:

  • PC which use for TEMS should turn off any usage of COM, IR, bluetooth, Wi-Fi,
  • any accessories attached at PC should be turn off, set PC into “Maximum Performance” at Control Panel-System
  • Slow PC, low memory, low HD capacity will make MS disconnected suddenly when TEMS use for a long time, same things happened if the battery of PC/laptop is too hot
  • Turn off power saving feature in the laptop/PC
  • Turn off screen saver
  • It would be better drive test laptop is only for do drive test not for daily routine

HINTS for Drive Test:

  • Make sure all connections cable at TEMS system is tight, as well external antenna
  • For indoor drive test, MS position is very crucial because some MS location can increase body loss or other losses (such as MS put behind laptop or put MS near body)
  • Avoid doing drive test at busy hour especially will increase loss (eq : a lot of people in the mall will increase body loss, a lot of car in the basement, traffic jam)

For 3G drive test, more user using 3G will reduce quality, do drive test at low traffic is essential

  • Drive test indoor need constant speed walk test (idle mode slower than dedicated mode)
  • Drive test outdoor should be constant and not to fast ( max 40 km/h inner city and max 60 km/h outer city)
  • Drive test recorded more than once at the same route (if possible) because it always given result slightly different. Take the best one as a report
  • Result Drive Test route for outdoor drive test should be ignored when drive test route inside tunnel, on top of fly over road, below fly over road, bridge. Pay attention that GPS can’t work well if no LOS into the sky
  • Ericsson.com/tems
  • Michael Pipikakis, Evaluating and Improving The Quality of Service of Second Generation Cellular System, September,2004
  • TEMS Investigation 4.0 Manual
  • TEMS Investigation 2.03 Manual
  • TEMS Investigation 7.0 Product Description