Secondhand Smoke Public Health hazard
This presentation is brought to you by the Clean Air Manhattan coalition. Mission: Protect the health of Manhattan residents and workers from the adverse effects of secondhand tobacco smoke.
What is Secondhand Smoke? Secondhand smoke, also referred to as involuntary smoking, passive smoking, and environmental tobacco smoke(ETS), is the combination of: • sidestream smoke, smoke emitted from a burning tobacco product, and • mainstream smoke, smoke exhaled from the lungs of smokers
Secondhand Smokeis deadly The CDC states that “secondhand smoke is the third leading preventable cause of death in the United States.” It is responsible for: • At least 38,000 to 53,000 deaths a year in otherwise healthy nonsmokers (CDC, ACS) • 330 to 590 annual Kansas deaths from others’ smoking (secondhand smoke and pregnancy smoking) (CTFK) • 35,000 to 40,000 deaths a year from heart disease (ACS) • 3,000 lung cancer deaths a year (ACS) The CDC warns persons with heart disease to avoid indoor settings where smoking is allowed because of the risk that even short-term exposure (as little as 30 minutes) to secondhand smoke can trigger heart attacks.
Secondhand smoke contains: Secondhand smoke is a known human carcinogen • at least 250 chemicals known to be toxic or carcinogenic (can cause cancer).(U.S. National Toxicology Program) • more than 60 known and suspected carcinogens.(EPA) • 3 carcinogens (benzene, arsenic, vinyl chloride) that are regulated in the U.S. as hazardous pollutants. (ACS) Note: Sidestream smoke from a burning tobacco product contains larger amounts of some toxic and cancer-causing substances than mainstream smoke from a smoker’s lungs.(EPA)
Some carcinogens in Secondhand smoke… Some of the deadly substances in secondhand smoke and the cancers they cause are: • Arsenic, benzo(a)pyrene, cadmium, chromium, nickel, and NNKlung cancer • Nitrosamines cancers of the lung, respiratory system, and other organs • Aromatic amines bladder and breast cancer • Formaldehyde and nickel nasal cancer • Benzene leukemia • Vinyl chloride liver and brain cancer • 2-napthalymine and 4-aminobiphenyl bladder cancer • Lead liver cancer (American Cancer Society)
Some chemicals in secondhand smoke… • Ammonia, a cleaning agent • Acetone, used in nail polish remover • Arsenic, a poison • Carbon monoxide, a toxic gas • Formaldehyde, used to preserve biological specimens • Methane, a greenhouse gas • Hydrogen cyanide, a poisonous gas used in gas chambers • Tar, used to seal roads, roofs, and ship hulls • Nicotine, a nerve poison used in insecticides; at low concentrations, a stimulant with addictive properties compared to those of heroin and cocaine
Secondhand smoke causes more than just cancer and heart disease • Emphysema and lung disease (ACS) • Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (2,000 a year) (NCI) • Low birthweight births (10,000 a year) (NCI) • Asthma (8,000-26,000 new cases and as many as 1 million exacerbated cases in children annually) (CDC, NCI) • Bronchitis and pneumonia (150,000 to 300,000 new cases a year in children under 18 months of age, 7,500-15,000 of which require hospitalization) (CDC) • Other respiratory problems like coughing, phlegm, chest discomfort, and reduced lung function (ACS) • The California EPA recently concluded that secondhand smoke causes breast cancer in younger, mainly premenopausal women.
secondhand smoke is an occupational hazard • The 11th Report on Carcinogens by the U.S. National Toxicology Program stated that exposure to environmental tobacco smoke “should be reduced to the lowest feasible concentration.” • Secondhand smoke in the workplace poses 200 times the acceptable risk of lung cancer and 2,000 times the acceptable risk of heart disease. (EPA) • Workers exposed to secondhand smoke in the workplace are 34% more likely to develop lung cancer.(CDC) • Bartenders working an 8-hour shift in a smoky bar get the same exposure to smoke as if they’d smoked half a pack of cigarettes. (ACS)
Unfair disparities… All workers deserve protection, not just white-collar workers. • More than three-fourths of white-collar workers are covered by smoke-free policies, but only 43% of the country’s 6.6 million food preparation and service workers benefit from the same protection.(ACS) • The tight economy means fewer choices about where to work. Forcing people to choose between supporting themselves and their families and protecting their health is unfair, unacceptable, and discriminatory. • Somebody has to do the hospitality jobs—nobody should have to face the hazardous (yet preventable) conditions they pose. • Restaurant and bar workers are less likely to have health insurance. (ACS) • African-American and Hispanic and Native Americans are less likely to be protected by smoke-free workplace policies since they’re more likely to work in sectors with the least amount of protection—service, hospitality, and labor industries. (ACS)
Eliminate the hazard by eliminating the smoke • Simple separation of smokers and nonsmokers within the same air space does not eliminate exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. (U.S. Surgeon General, 1986) • Ventilation technology does not protect people from secondhand smoke. The American Society for Heating, Refrigerating & Air Conditioning Engineers states that “the only way to effectively eliminate health risks associated with indoor exposure is to ban smoking activity.” (ASHRAE) • The most effective and least expensive way to stop exposure to secondhand smoke is to eliminate it. (ACS)
Smoke-free laws save lives • Heart attack rates in Pueblo, Colorado, dropped by 27% after the city passed a smoke-free ordinance. (AHA) • During the six months that Helena, Montana’s smoke-free law was in effect, the number of patients admitted for heart attacks dropped 40%, while areas where the ban was not in force observed no changes in heart attack admission rates. (ACS) • Smoking bans may be effectivein preventing youth from starting to smoke. According to a Univ. of Mass. study of more than 2,600 youth ages 12-17, teens living in towns with strong smoking bans (including restaurants) had less than half the odds of becoming addicted smokers than teens living in towns with no ordinance, or weak ones.(Tobacco Control, Oct 2005; 14:300-306) (Note: Almost 90% of current smokers became addicted to tobacco before age 18. –ACS)
Smoke-free laws protect health • Air quality studies showed significantly reduced air pollution in New York (“six-fold”), Kentucky (91%), and Indiana (89%). • In California, just one month after the law went into effect, 53 bartenders were found to have a 5-7 percent improvement in their overall pulmonary function. • New York City had an 11% decline in smoking prevalence, and an estimated 18,000 people quit using tobacco as a result of the ordinance. (American Cancer Society)
Benefits of a Smoke-free workplace policy For the employees: • A safer, more healthful workplace for smokers and nonsmokers. • More incentive for smokers to quit. • Smokers appreciate a clear company policy about smoking at work. • Managers appreciate a clearly defined process for dealing with smoking in the workplace. • A well-planned and carefully implemented effort by the employer to address the effect of smoking on employees' health and the health of their families shows that the company cares. (Dept. of Health & Human Services, CDC, ACS, and Wellness Councils of America)
Benefits of a Smoke-free workplace policy For the employer: • A safer, more healthful workplace for all. • Reduced direct health care costs to the company. • Reduced maintenance costs without smoke, matches, and cigarette butts. • Longer-lasting office equipment, carpets, and furniture. • Possibility to negotiate lower health, life, and disability coverage as employee smoking is reduced. • Reduced fire risk. (Dept. of Health & Human Services, CDC, ACS, and Wellness Councils of America)
Benefits of a Smoke-free workplace policy For the community: • Prompt more smokers to quit • Increase the number of successful quit attempts • Reduce the number of cigarettes that smokers consume • Discourage youth from ever starting to smoke (CTFK)
9 states have a comprehensive, statewide smoke-free law—Washington, California, Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Massachusetts, New York, Rhode Island, and Vermont. Montana’s will be comprehensive in 2009. Florida, Idaho, and Utah have some form of smoke-free laws.(CTFK) Nationwide, 4,842 municipalities have a 100% smoke-free indoor air law in effect for workplaces and/or restaurants and/or bars.(ANRF) Countries that have 100% smoke-free laws include most of Canada, Ireland, Norway, Scotland, Serbia, Sweden, Uganda, Iran, New Zealand, and Australia. Many others have some form of clean indoor air laws.(ANRF) Kansas has 10 communities with smoke-free ordinances—Fairway, Lyons, Hutchinson, Lawrence, Concordia, Prairie Village, Abilene, Walton/Harvey Co., Bel Air, Salina Clean indoor Air legislation
Together, let’s clear the air for the health of all citizens, workers, and children in Manhattan.
RESOURCES • American Cancer Society (ACS) www.cancer.org • American Heart Association (AHA) www.americanheart.org • American Society for Heating, Refrigerating & Air Conditioning Engineers www.ashrae.org • Americans for Nonsmokers’ Rights (ANR) www.no-smoke.org • Campaign for Tobacco Free Kids Foundation (CTFK) www.tobaccofreekids.org • Centers for Disease Control (CDC) www.cdc.gov • Clean Air Manhattan (Kansas) (CAM) www.cleanairmanhattan.org • Dept. of Health & Human Services, CDC, ACS, and Wellness Councils of America, "Making Your Workplace Smokefree: A Decision Maker's Guide” http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/research_data/environmental/etsguide.htm • Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) www.epa.gov • Kansas Department of Health and Environment www.kdhe.state.ks.us/tobacco • National Cancer Institute (NCI) www.cancer.gov • National Toxicology Program, U.S. Dept. of Health & Human Services http://ntp-server.niehs.nih.gov • Tobacco Control, Oct 2005; 14:300-306. Seigel, M., et. al., “Effect of local restaurant wsmoking regulations on progression to established smoking among youths.” http://tc.bmjjournal.com • Tobacco Free Kansas Coalition, Inc.www.tobaccofreekansas.org