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Portable Media Devices . And Implications on Database Design and Queries By Mark Zalar. Seminar Outline. Trends in portable media devices Database implications Stand-alone devices Network of devices Examples Vehicle navigation S-CITI evacuation mapping Term project.

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portable media devices

Portable Media Devices

And Implications on Database Design and Queries

By Mark Zalar

seminar outline
Seminar Outline
  • Trends in portable media devices
  • Database implications
    • Stand-alone devices
    • Network of devices
  • Examples
    • Vehicle navigation
    • S-CITI evacuation mapping
  • Term project
portable media devices1
Portable Media Devices
  • They’re everywhere!
    • Cell phones
    • Mp3 players
    • Portable DVD players
    • PDAs
    • Cameras
    • Video games
    • Vehicle navigation systems
portable media devices2
Portable Media Devices
  • Trends
    • Decrease in size
    • Decrease in price
    • Increase in features
trends cell phones
Trends: Cell Phones
  • Remember the car phone?
  • First cellular phones
    • Voice calls
  • Now
    • Voice calls
    • Text messaging
    • Picture messaging
    • Video with sound
trends cell phones1
Trends: Cell Phones
  • Other features now available
    • Email
    • GPS
    • Bluetooth
    • Sophisticated ring tones
    • Games
    • Calendars
    • Calculators
    • Etc.
trends mp3 players
Trends: mp3 Players
  • iPod
    • Decrease in size
      • 1G……………4.02” x 2.43” x 0.78” 6.50 oz.
      • 5G……………4.10” x 2.40” x 0.55” 5.50 oz.
      • Nano…………3.50” x 1.60” x 0.26” 1.41 oz.
      • Shuffle……….1.07” x 1.62” x 0.41” 0.55 oz.
trends mp3 players1
Trends: mp3 Players
  • iPod
    • Increase in number of features
      • Video
      • Pictures
      • Games
      • Improved battery life (up to 20 hrs.)
      • More storage space (up to 80 GB)
      • Search feature
trends mp3 players2
Trends: mp3 Players
  • iPod
    • Decrease in price
      • 1G (2001-2002)
        • $399 5GB
        • $499 10GB
      • 5G
        • $349 30GB
        • $449 80GB
what does it all mean
What Does It All Mean?
  • Decrease in size
    • More portability
  • Decrease in price
    • More accessibility
  • Increase in number of features
    • More ability
what does it all mean1
What Does It All Mean?
  • Driving advances in technology
    • Improved audio and video compression techniques
    • Improved battery performance
    • Higher capacity storage devices
what does it all mean2
What Does It All Mean?
  • Increased communication among people
    • Almost everyone has a cell phone!
    • Podcasts
      • Web 2.0 ideology
      • Ability to get news and other information in new settings
      • list of free academic Podcasts
what does it all mean3
What Does It All Mean?
  • Incredible convenience
    • Driving directions
    • Scheduling & organization
    • Social networking
    • Entertainment
    • Save time!
database implications
Database Implications
  • Stand-alone devices
    • Device-database interaction
    • Querying within a device
  • Network of devices
    • Concurrency issues
    • Dynamic querying
database implications1
Database Implications
  • Stand-alone devices
    • Portable multimedia devices often hold data
    • Where does this data come from?
    • How can this data be managed?
device db interaction
Device-db Interaction
  • Synchronization
    • Mobile device -> immobile, central db
      • Mobile device is a version of the central db
      • Changes are made to the central db
      • Mobile device synchs with central db for updated data
      • Examples:
        • iPod + iTunes
        • Podcasts
        • GCALSYNC
querying within a device
Querying Within A Device
  • More storage capacity means more data
  • Cell Phones
    • Search contacts
  • iPod
    • search feature
database implications2
Database Implications
  • Network of devices
    • Many portable multimedia devices communicate via wireless networks
    • Data is shared among nodes in the network
    • How can we be sure the data is accurate?
    • How do we access this data?
  • Data concurrency is harder to maintain in mobile distributed real-time database systems
  • Data is constantly changing
    • How much error can be tolerated?
    • Examples: location, speed, temperature
  • Mobile networks are not as efficient or reliable
    • Interference
    • Signal strength
    • Ad-hoc wireless networks may suffer from partitions
dynamic querying
Dynamic Querying
  • Exact data isn’t always available
    • Predictors sometimes necessary
  • Multiple data sources
    • Querying may not be limited to one data source
    • Mobile distributed data system
example navigation systems
Example: Navigation Systems
  • Telemantics service
    • Becoming more common in new vehicles
    • Telemantics = telecommunication + informatics
    • Provides information to a mobile source
    • Often combine GPS and cellular technology with vehicle’s onboard electronics
    • Provide safety, convenience, vehicle diagnostics, and entertainment
navigation systems
Navigation Systems
  • How they work
    • GPS
      • 24 GPS satellites orbiting Earth
      • GPS receiver determines its distance from at least 3 overheard satellites
      • Trigonometry used to calculate latitude and longitude
    • Gyroscope
      • Directional information
      • Map matching
    • Speedometer
      • Map matching
    • Digital Map
      • Algorithms used to determine route
vdo dayton navigation system
VDO Dayton Navigation System
  • Special Feature: Traffic Message Channel Capabilities
    • Receives real-time traffic information by FM band using RDS (Radio Data System)
    • Alerts the driver verbally and visually of upcoming traffic issues
    • Gives driver option to bypass traffic delay, and will calculate new best route!
navigation systems queries
Navigation Systems: Queries
  • Dynamic Query Example 1
    • “Where am I?”
      • Ask the GPS satellites
        • Not always!
      • Use predictors to figure it out
        • Gyroscope+speedometer+last known position
navigation systems queries1
Navigation Systems: Queries
  • Dynamic Query Example 2
    • “How do I get from here to there?”
      • Determine position
      • Consult digital map
      • Listen to TMC
      • Revise route if necessary
navigation systems db design
Navigation Systems: DB Design
  • Digital map acts as the database
    • Flexibility!
    • Stored on CD/DVD, flash memory, hard disk, or some combination
    • Common for a base map to be stored in ROM which can then be augmented with more detailed information for desired locations
    • Detailed information can come from CD/DVD, memory card, downloaded, etc.
s citi
  • Mission:
    • The Self-secure and robust Critical Information Technology Infrastructure project (S-CITI for short) aims at providing support to Emergency Managers (EMs) that are faced with management of resources and with decisions before, during, and after emergencies or disasters.
  • Approach:
    • We will use new and existing sensors to gather data from the field, process this data to detect and predict emergency/disaster situations, and disseminate this data among the appropriate organizational units. The data flow will be done in a reliable and secure manner and EMs will coordinate actions in a Virtual Coordination Center, which need not be in a fixed (and thus vulnerable) physical location. The EMs are responsible for indicating what type of data is more valuable, so that S-CITI can display that information appropriately.
  • From S-CITI project website
s citi evacuation mapping
S-CITI Evacuation Mapping
  • Motivation
    • Rescuers often are not familiar with building layout
    • Building occupants may panic or become disoriented during an emergency
    • Both rescuers and occupants can easily carry a portable multimedia device, like a PDA, to send and receive wireless communication
s citi evacuation mapping1
S-CITI: Evacuation Mapping
  • Check in
    • User checks in when they enter a room
    • Centralized server keeps track of everyone’s location
    • Hazardous event location known
    • All users given map to exit
s citi evacuation mapping2
S-CITI: Evacuation Mapping
  • Position determination
    • Wireless device determines its location from the base station based on signal strength
    • Not constrained to rooms
    • User does not have to check in
s citi evacuation mapping3
S-CITI: Evacuation Mapping
  • Dynamic querying
    • People’s locations will vary and may change constantly
    • Location of hazardous event will vary and can change constantly
improving clustering search interfaces

Improving Clustering Search Interfaces


Mark Zalar


Perry Rajnovic

project goal
Project Goal
  • Implement a search site with a highly usable interface for query refinement
  • Backend
    • Clustering technique to allow for easy refocusing of search topics
  • Frontend
    • AJAX for flexibility
backend design
Backend Design
  • Database design
    • MySQL implementation
    • Clustering mechanism
  • Interface between database and frontend
    • Glue code between frontend and backend
    • PHP and JavaScript code to talk to database
backend design1
Backend Design
  • Focus on query refinement
    • Goal to design database in such a way that query refinement is relatively simple
    • Clustering hierarchy
      • Refinement based on cluster level
    • Measures of similarity
      • Refinement based on level of similarity