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Portable Media Devices . And Implications on Database Design and Queries By Mark Zalar. Seminar Outline. Trends in portable media devices Database implications Stand-alone devices Network of devices Examples Vehicle navigation S-CITI evacuation mapping Term project.

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Portable media devices

Portable Media Devices

And Implications on Database Design and Queries

By Mark Zalar

Seminar outline
Seminar Outline

  • Trends in portable media devices

  • Database implications

    • Stand-alone devices

    • Network of devices

  • Examples

    • Vehicle navigation

    • S-CITI evacuation mapping

  • Term project

Portable media devices1
Portable Media Devices

  • They’re everywhere!

    • Cell phones

    • Mp3 players

    • Portable DVD players

    • PDAs

    • Cameras

    • Video games

    • Vehicle navigation systems

Portable media devices2
Portable Media Devices

  • Trends

    • Decrease in size

    • Decrease in price

    • Increase in features

Trends cell phones
Trends: Cell Phones

  • Remember the car phone?

  • First cellular phones

    • Voice calls

  • Now

    • Voice calls

    • Text messaging

    • Picture messaging

    • Video with sound

Trends cell phones1
Trends: Cell Phones

  • Other features now available

    • Email

    • GPS

    • Bluetooth

    • Sophisticated ring tones

    • Games

    • Calendars

    • Calculators

    • Etc.

Trends mp3 players
Trends: mp3 Players

  • iPod

    • Decrease in size

      • 1G……………4.02” x 2.43” x 0.78” 6.50 oz.

      • 5G……………4.10” x 2.40” x 0.55” 5.50 oz.

      • Nano…………3.50” x 1.60” x 0.26” 1.41 oz.

      • Shuffle……….1.07” x 1.62” x 0.41” 0.55 oz.

Trends mp3 players1
Trends: mp3 Players

  • iPod

    • Increase in number of features

      • Video

      • Pictures

      • Games

      • Improved battery life (up to 20 hrs.)

      • More storage space (up to 80 GB)

      • Search feature

Trends mp3 players2
Trends: mp3 Players

  • iPod

    • Decrease in price

      • 1G (2001-2002)

        • $399 5GB

        • $499 10GB

      • 5G

        • $349 30GB

        • $449 80GB

What does it all mean
What Does It All Mean?

  • Decrease in size

    • More portability

  • Decrease in price

    • More accessibility

  • Increase in number of features

    • More ability

What does it all mean1
What Does It All Mean?

  • Driving advances in technology

    • Improved audio and video compression techniques

    • Improved battery performance

    • Higher capacity storage devices

What does it all mean2
What Does It All Mean?

  • Increased communication among people

    • Almost everyone has a cell phone!

    • Podcasts

      • Web 2.0 ideology

      • Ability to get news and other information in new settings

      • list of free academic Podcasts

What does it all mean3
What Does It All Mean?

  • Incredible convenience

    • Driving directions

    • Scheduling & organization

    • Social networking

    • Entertainment

    • Save time!

Database implications
Database Implications

  • Stand-alone devices

    • Device-database interaction

    • Querying within a device

  • Network of devices

    • Concurrency issues

    • Dynamic querying

Database implications1
Database Implications

  • Stand-alone devices

    • Portable multimedia devices often hold data

    • Where does this data come from?

    • How can this data be managed?

Device db interaction
Device-db Interaction

  • Synchronization

    • Mobile device -> immobile, central db

      • Mobile device is a version of the central db

      • Changes are made to the central db

      • Mobile device synchs with central db for updated data

      • Examples:

        • iPod + iTunes

        • Podcasts

        • GCALSYNC

Querying within a device
Querying Within A Device

  • More storage capacity means more data

  • Cell Phones

    • Search contacts

  • iPod

    • search feature

Database implications2
Database Implications

  • Network of devices

    • Many portable multimedia devices communicate via wireless networks

    • Data is shared among nodes in the network

    • How can we be sure the data is accurate?

    • How do we access this data?


  • Data concurrency is harder to maintain in mobile distributed real-time database systems

  • Data is constantly changing

    • How much error can be tolerated?

    • Examples: location, speed, temperature


  • Mobile networks are not as efficient or reliable

    • Interference

    • Signal strength

    • Ad-hoc wireless networks may suffer from partitions

Dynamic querying
Dynamic Querying

  • Exact data isn’t always available

    • Predictors sometimes necessary

  • Multiple data sources

    • Querying may not be limited to one data source

    • Mobile distributed data system

Example navigation systems
Example: Navigation Systems

  • Telemantics service

    • Becoming more common in new vehicles

    • Telemantics = telecommunication + informatics

    • Provides information to a mobile source

    • Often combine GPS and cellular technology with vehicle’s onboard electronics

    • Provide safety, convenience, vehicle diagnostics, and entertainment

Navigation systems
Navigation Systems

  • How they work

    • GPS

      • 24 GPS satellites orbiting Earth

      • GPS receiver determines its distance from at least 3 overheard satellites

      • Trigonometry used to calculate latitude and longitude

    • Gyroscope

      • Directional information

      • Map matching

    • Speedometer

      • Map matching

    • Digital Map

      • Algorithms used to determine route

Vdo dayton navigation system
VDO Dayton Navigation System

  • Special Feature: Traffic Message Channel Capabilities

    • Receives real-time traffic information by FM band using RDS (Radio Data System)

    • Alerts the driver verbally and visually of upcoming traffic issues

    • Gives driver option to bypass traffic delay, and will calculate new best route!

Navigation systems queries
Navigation Systems: Queries

  • Dynamic Query Example 1

    • “Where am I?”

      • Ask the GPS satellites

        • Not always!

      • Use predictors to figure it out

        • Gyroscope+speedometer+last known position

Navigation systems queries1
Navigation Systems: Queries

  • Dynamic Query Example 2

    • “How do I get from here to there?”

      • Determine position

      • Consult digital map

      • Listen to TMC

      • Revise route if necessary

Navigation systems db design
Navigation Systems: DB Design

  • Digital map acts as the database

    • Flexibility!

    • Stored on CD/DVD, flash memory, hard disk, or some combination

    • Common for a base map to be stored in ROM which can then be augmented with more detailed information for desired locations

    • Detailed information can come from CD/DVD, memory card, downloaded, etc.

S citi

  • Mission:

    • The Self-secure and robust Critical Information Technology Infrastructure project (S-CITI for short) aims at providing support to Emergency Managers (EMs) that are faced with management of resources and with decisions before, during, and after emergencies or disasters.

  • Approach:

    • We will use new and existing sensors to gather data from the field, process this data to detect and predict emergency/disaster situations, and disseminate this data among the appropriate organizational units. The data flow will be done in a reliable and secure manner and EMs will coordinate actions in a Virtual Coordination Center, which need not be in a fixed (and thus vulnerable) physical location. The EMs are responsible for indicating what type of data is more valuable, so that S-CITI can display that information appropriately.

  • From S-CITI project website

S citi evacuation mapping
S-CITI Evacuation Mapping

  • Motivation

    • Rescuers often are not familiar with building layout

    • Building occupants may panic or become disoriented during an emergency

    • Both rescuers and occupants can easily carry a portable multimedia device, like a PDA, to send and receive wireless communication

S citi evacuation mapping1
S-CITI: Evacuation Mapping

  • Check in

    • User checks in when they enter a room

    • Centralized server keeps track of everyone’s location

    • Hazardous event location known

    • All users given map to exit

S citi evacuation mapping2
S-CITI: Evacuation Mapping

  • Position determination

    • Wireless device determines its location from the base station based on signal strength

    • Not constrained to rooms

    • User does not have to check in

S citi evacuation mapping3
S-CITI: Evacuation Mapping

  • Dynamic querying

    • People’s locations will vary and may change constantly

    • Location of hazardous event will vary and can change constantly

Improving clustering search interfaces

Improving Clustering Search Interfaces


Mark Zalar


Perry Rajnovic

Project goal
Project Goal

  • Implement a search site with a highly usable interface for query refinement

  • Backend

    • Clustering technique to allow for easy refocusing of search topics

  • Frontend

    • AJAX for flexibility

Backend design
Backend Design

  • Database design

    • MySQL implementation

    • Clustering mechanism

  • Interface between database and frontend

    • Glue code between frontend and backend

    • PHP and JavaScript code to talk to database

Backend design1
Backend Design

  • Focus on query refinement

    • Goal to design database in such a way that query refinement is relatively simple

    • Clustering hierarchy

      • Refinement based on cluster level

    • Measures of similarity

      • Refinement based on level of similarity