PLANNING HISTORY: PART II 1900-1930s: persistent and expanded urban problems and a diversity of (inadequate?) responses Industrial hyper-development presented new challenges eliciting a diversity of complex responses.
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1900-1930s: persistent and expanded urban problems and a diversity of (inadequate?) responses
Reflected differing perspectives/philosophies
and differing outcomes.
Pragmatists (moles)Utopians (Skylarks)
Who were they -
-Architects: Daniel Burnham (master planner and “father of American architecture”)
- Lawyers (Alfred Bettman and Edward Bassett
- Engineers (Robert Moses)
- Social Critics (Jane Jacobs)
- Publicists/strategists (Walter Moody)
The city needed to be revamped and people relocated.
Ebenezer Howard (1850-1929)
Patrick Geddes (1854-1932)
Edouard de Jeanneret aka LeCorbusier (1887-1990)
Frank Lloyd Wright
Lewis Mumford (1895-1979)
(aka: City Scientific, or City Functional)
Application of empiricism (scientific data gathering)
See works of Robert Moses and Daniel Burnham, Walter Moody for examples
The Automobile Shapes The city (from article by M. V. Melosi) Ford Model T-automobile 1920s
A vision realized but never entirely enduring:
Refer also to article by Robert Fishman (required reading)
The American Architect commented (1980):
Represents the first scientific effort that has ever been made to establish a community designed exclusively to minimize the danger of automobile accidents.…It was also the desire of the builders to create not only a [safe] community ..but …one of beauty in appearance and the utmost in modern efficiency.
Quoted in Kreukeberg 1087, p. 128
1. “NGO”-private partnership
3. Creation of mixed use largely residential "superblocks”.
4. Introduced five-step planning process - has been a lasting guide:
(see Euclid v. Ambler Realty Company)
Euclid v. Ambler Realty Company
President F. D. Roosevelt’s New Deal “Planning” Actions