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Parent-Teacher Trust and the Cooperation during the Preschool year. The 17th EECERA Annual conference 2007 Marita Kontoniemi Pirjo-Liisa Poikonen, Marja-Kristiina Lerkkanen & Anna-Maija Poikkeus University of Jyväskylä, Finland and Airi Niilo & Eve Kikas University of Tartu, Estonia.

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Parent teacher trust and the cooperation during the preschool year

Parent-Teacher Trust and the Cooperation during the Preschool year

The 17th EECERA Annual conference 2007

Marita Kontoniemi

Pirjo-Liisa Poikonen, Marja-Kristiina Lerkkanen & Anna-Maija Poikkeus

University of Jyväskylä, Finland

and

Airi Niilo & Eve Kikas

University of Tartu, Estonia


FIRST STEPS:

Learning Interactions between Children, Parents and Teachers

TEACHER

PARENT

  • Beliefs, expectations & attributions concerning a child

  • Instructional styles & practices, teacher-student interaction

  • Collaboration between teachers

  • Beliefs, expectations & attributions concerning a child

  • Parenting styles, parental efficacy

  • Parental involvement

PARTNERSHIP

Congruence

Trust

CHILD

  • Development of academic skills: preschool, 1st through 4th grade

  • Learning motivation

Subproject of the CoE on Learning and Motivation Research


TRUST - a complex concept

  • Trust relates to organisational processes such as communication, collaboration, climate, organizational citizenship, collective efficacy, achievement and effectiveness(Tschannen-Moran & Hoy, 2000).

  • Hoy and Tschannen-Moran (1999) demonstrated in their factor-analytic study that all of facets of trust covary together and form a coherent construct of trust.

  • Trust is one party’s willingness to be vulnerable to another party based on the confidence that the latter party is benevolent, reliable, competent, honest and open (Tschannen-Moran & Hoy 1998, 1999).


(1) To examine the level of trust between parents and teachers at the end of the preschool year in two countries Estonia and Finland.

(2) To analyse the level of parents’ trust and co-operation towards the preschool teacher in the beginning and in the end of their child’s preschool year.

The Aims of the Study


Methods and measures
Methods and measures teachers at the end of the preschool year in two countries Estonia and Finland.

Participants

  • 16 Finnish and 67 Estonian preschool teachers

  • Parents of 139 Finnish and 302 Estonian preschool children (6-year-olds)

    • 115 Finnish and 256 Estonian mothers

    • 97 Finnish and 23 Estonian fathers

Design

  • Parents and teachers answered to the questionnaire at the beginning (October) and in the end (April) of the preschool year in Finland, and in March - April in Estonia


Methods and measures 2
Methods and measures (2) teachers at the end of the preschool year in two countries Estonia and Finland.

  • Parents’ questionnaires

  • Beliefs, expectations & attributions concerning a child

  • Parenting styles and parental efficacy

  • Parental involvement

  • Trust and cooperation with teacher: 13 items concerning trust (Trust Scale by Adams & Christenson, 2000) and 4 open questions about cooperation

  • Teachers’ questionnaires

  • Beliefs, expectations & attributions concerning a child

  • Instructional styles & practices

  • Collaboration between teachers

  • Trust and cooperation with teacher: 13 items concerning trust (Trust Scale by Adams & Christenson, 2000) and 4 open questions about cooperation


Methods and measures 3
Methods and measures (3) teachers at the end of the preschool year in two countries Estonia and Finland.

  • ANALYSIS

  • Quantitative analysis: paired samples t-tests, factor analyses, ANOVAs (post-hoc analysis with LSD)

  • Qualitative analyses: open questions


Number of children in the family
Number of children in teachers at the end of the preschool year in two countries Estonia and Finland. thefamily


Parental employment in the finnish sample
Parental employment in the Finnish sample teachers at the end of the preschool year in two countries Estonia and Finland.


Family structure in the finnish sample
Family structure in the Finnish sample teachers at the end of the preschool year in two countries Estonia and Finland.


Finnish teachers and preschools teachers at the end of the preschool year in two countries Estonia and Finland.


  • FACTOR ANALYSIS: teachers at the end of the preschool year in two countries Estonia and Finland. 2 factors

    • The first factor was named parent-teacher relationship: kindness, respect and positive attitude and the atmosphere of communication.

    •  it explained most of the total variance in trust in all groups: mothers 45%, fathers 63%, and teachers 64%.

    • 2. The second factor was namedcompetence of guidance: teaching skills and the support for the child.

    • explanation of variance in trust:mothers 9%, fathers 8% and teachers 11%.


TRUST IN ESTONIAN AND FINNISH SAMPLES: means teachers at the end of the preschool year in two countries Estonia and Finland.

Estonia

Finland

Teachers

Mothers

Fathers


THE BIRTH ORDER OF THE CHILD AND THE PARENTS’ TRUST TOWARDS THE TEACHER

firstborn with siblings

only child

child with older and younger siblings

youngest child


The level of trust declined during the preschool year TOWARDS THE TEACHER

 Scores on item 13 “The preschool teacher is worth of my respect.” declined for both mothers and fathers.

  •  Especially mothers’ trust in teachers differentiated and became more multifaceted.

  • Mothers became also more critical about the competence of the teacher.


Cooperation with the teacher open questions for finnish parents
Cooperation with the teacher TOWARDS THE TEACHER(open questions for Finnish parents)

  • Could you please mention one thing which the preschool teacher could do to promote your trust?

    • Most of the parents were very satisfied and expressed trust:

      “I trust wholly on her”, “Everything is OK”, “We have a wonderful teacher”

    • Only some parents wished to gain more information about their child’s progress and the preschool program or just to have a chance to communicate more often with the teacher:

      “I would like the teacher to tell more about the daily activities”, “More information of the child's improvement”


Cooperation with the teacher 2 open questions for finnish parents
Cooperation with the teacher 2 TOWARDS THE TEACHER(open questions for Finnish parents)

  • If you could change one thing in your child's preschool, what would it be?

    • 25 % of parents answered “nothing” or commented that “everything is perfectly”

    • Some wished that group sizes would be smaller or they wished changes in the length of the preschool day or the beginning time


Cooperation with the teacher 3 open questions for finnish parents
Cooperation with the teacher 3 TOWARDS THE TEACHER(open questions for Finnish parents)

  • What is especially good in cooperation with the preschool teacher(s)?

    • Openness, trust and respect:

      “They understand us”, “I can tell them everything”, “Warm and open atmosphere of communication”

    • Cooperation:

      “Daily contacts”, “Information on the child's improvement and problems”, “Natural interaction”


Cooperation with the teacher 4 open questions for finnish parents
Cooperation with the teacher 4 TOWARDS THE TEACHER(open questions for Finnish parents)

  • What kind of problems or worries have you had concerning your child’s preschool teacher(s)?

    The majority of the parents have no problems or worries at all

     The worries were most often linked to the big group sizes: parent were concerned whether the teacher has enough time for each child and whether she / he has a chance to pay attention to things happening in the child’s group.


Cooperation with the parents open questions for finnish preschool teachers
Cooperation with the parents TOWARDS THE TEACHER(open questions for Finnish preschool teachers)

  • Could you please mention one thing which parents could do to promote your trust to them in relation to the child?

     To get more information of the child from the parents.

     More openness in the discussions with the parents.


Cooperation with the parents 2 open questions for preschool teachers
Cooperation with the parents TOWARDS THE TEACHER2 (open questions for preschool teachers)

  • What kind of problems and worries have you had with parents in this particular preschool group?

     Parents’ lack of time for their children.


Cooperation with the parents 3 open questions for preschool teachers
Cooperation with the parents TOWARDS THE TEACHER3 (open questions for preschool teachers)

  • What is especially good in cooperation with parents in this preschool group?

    Trust

     Daily contacts and collaboration

     Open interaction


Cooperation with the parents 4 open questions for preschool teachers
Cooperation with the parents TOWARDS THE TEACHER4 (open questions for preschool teachers)

  • What kind of wishes and expectations of cooperationwith parents have you had?

     Openness in communication and interaction

     Mutual trust and partnership in education and rearing


Conclusions
Conclusions TOWARDS THE TEACHER

  • Open communication and information enhance trust

  • Cooperation (daily contacts and discussions) promotes trust

  • Trust is a prerequisite for cooperation

  • It is important to pay attention to the climate of communication and interaction between parents and preschool teachers throughout the school year


Trust scale adams christenson 2000 parent form
Trust Scale (Adams & Christenson, 2000) Parent form TOWARDS THE TEACHER

I am confident that the teacher

1. is doing a good job teaching my child academic subjects.

2. is doing a good job helping my child resolve conflicts with peers.

3. is doing a good job keeping me well-informed of my child’s progress.

4. is doing a good job disciplining my child.

5. is easy to reach when I have a problem or question.

6. is doing a good job encouraging my child’s sense of self-esteem.

7. is doing a good job encouraging my child to have a positive attitude toward learning.

8. is friendly and approachable.

9. is receptive to my input and suggestions.

10. is sensitive to cultural differences.

11. respects me as a competent parent.

12. cares about my child.

13. is worthy of my respect.


Trust scale adams christenson 2000 teacher form
Trust Scale (Adams & Christenson, 2000) Teacher form TOWARDS THE TEACHER

I am confident that parents / guardians:

1. are doing a good job teaching their child academic subjects at home.

2. are doing a good job helping their child resolve conflicts with peers.

3. are doing a good job disciplining their child.

4. are easy to reach when I have a question or problem.

5. make me aware of all information I need about their child.

6. are doing a good job encouraging their child’s sense of self-esteem.

7. are doing a good job encouraging their child to have a positive attitude toward learning.

8. are friendly and approachable.

9. are receptive to my input and suggestions.

10. are sensitive to cultural differences.

11. respect me as a competent teacher.

12. are clearly committed to their child’s education.

13. are worthy of my respect.


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