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Module 31 Assessing Intelligence Worth Publishers Assessing Intelligence One-Minute Intelligence Test Origins of Intelligence Testing Alfred Binet – French Psychologist developed intelligence test when schools needed a way to objectively identify students with special needs

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slide1
Module 31

Assessing Intelligence

Worth Publishers

assessing intelligence
Assessing Intelligence

One-Minute Intelligence Test

origins of intelligence testing
Origins of Intelligence Testing
  • Alfred Binet– French Psychologist
    • developed intelligence test when schools needed a way to objectively identify students with special needs
    • believed that all children follow same path of development, some develop more rapidly
origins of intelligence testing4
Origins of Intelligence Testing
  • Mental Age
    • a measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet
    • chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance
    • child who does as well as the average 8-year-old is said to have a mental age of 8
origins of intelligence testing5
Origins of Intelligence Testing
  • Stanford-Binet
    • the widely used American revision of Binet’s original intelligence test
      • revised by Terman at Stanford University
        • extended range to include adults
        • Developed test to evaluate immigrants and WWI army recruits – cultural bias
origins of intelligence testing6
Origins of Intelligence Testing
  • Intelligence Quotient (IQ)
    • defined originally the ratio of mental age (ma) to chronological age (ca) multiplied by 100
      • IQ = (ma/ca x 100)
    • on contemporary tests, the average performance for a given age is assigned a score of 100
origins of intelligence testing7
Origins of Intelligence Testing
  • If mental and chronological age are the same, IQ = 100.
  • Most current intellectual tests, no longer measure an IQ.
  • Original formula works for children, not for adults.
  • Today’s intellectual tests compare mental ability score based on test-taker’s performance relative to the average performance of others that are the same age.
  • 2/3 of all people score between 85-115.
assessing intelligence8
Assessing Intelligence
  • Aptitude Test
    • a test designed to predict a person’s future performance (ex. SAT)
    • aptitude is the capacity to learn
  • Achievement Test
    • a test designed to assess what a person has learned (ex. course exam)
assessing intelligence9
Assessing Intelligence
  • Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)
    • most widely used intelligence test
    • Subtests – (11)
      • verbal
      • performance (nonverbal)
assessing intelligence sample items from the wais

VERBAL

PERFORMANCE

Picture Completion

Picture Arrangement

Block Design

Object Assembly

Digit-Symbol Substitution

General Information

Similarities

Arithmetic Reasoning

Vocabulary

Comprehension

Digit Span

From Thorndike and Hagen, 1977

Assessing Intelligence: Sample Items from the WAIS
assessing intelligence sample items from the wais11
Assessing Intelligence: Sample Items from the WAIS

Subtest of the WAIS-R -

Measures abilities to see similarities

(Transparency/Analogies)

assessing intelligence12
Assessing Intelligence
  • To be widely accepted, intelligence tests have to be –
    • Standardized
    • Reliable
    • Valid
    • (Stanford-Binet, Wechsler tests met all three.)
assessing intelligence13
Assessing Intelligence
  • Basis for comparing your score to others’ performance –
    • Give test to a representative group of people.
    • When people take test their scores are compared to the sample in #1.
assessing intelligence14
Assessing Intelligence
  • Standardization
    • defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested “standardization group”
  • Normal Curve
    • the symmetrical bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes
    • most scores fall near the average, and fewer and fewer scores lie near the extremes
flynn effect
Flynn Effect
  • Greater test sophistication?
  • Better nutrition?
  • More education?
  • More stimulation in the environment?
  • Less childhood disease?
  • Smaller families and more parental involvement?
assessing intelligence18
Assessing Intelligence
  • Reliability
    • the extent to which a test yields consistent results
    • assessed by consistency of scores on:
      • two halves of the test – split test – odd/even
      • alternate forms of the test
      • retesting
  • Validity
    • the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to
assessing intelligence19
Assessing Intelligence

Standardized Test

Chitlings Test

Morris Shoe Size Test –

  • Are these tests – standardized, reliable, valid?
assessing intelligence20
Assessing Intelligence
  • Content Validity
    • the extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest
      • driving test that samples driving tasks
  • Criterion
    • behavior (such as college grades) that a test (such as the SAT) is designed to predict
    • the measure used in defining whether the test has predictive validity
assessing intelligence21
Assessing Intelligence
  • Predictive Validity
    • success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict
    • assessed by computing the correlation between test scores and the criterion behavior
    • also called criterion-related validity
assessing intelligence22

10

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

0

Greater correlation

over broad range

of body weights

Football linemen’s

success

Little corre-

lation within

restricted

range

180 250 290

Body weight in pounds

Assessing Intelligence
  • As the range of data under consideration narrows, its predictive power diminishes
the dynamics of intelligence
The Dynamics of Intelligence
  • Mental Retardation
    • a condition of limited mental ability
    • indicated by an intelligence score below 70
    • produces difficulty in adapting to the demands of life
    • varies from mild to profound
  • Down Syndrome
    • retardation and associated physical disorders caused by an extra chromosome in one’s genetic makeup