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II. Blood and Blood Components. Terry Kotrla, MS, MT(ASCP)BB Spring 2010. Goals Of Blood Collection . Maintain viability and function Prevent physical changes Minimize bacterial contamination. Anticoagulants Preservative Solutions. Anticoagulants prevent blood clotting

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ii blood and blood components

II. Blood and Blood Components

Terry Kotrla, MS, MT(ASCP)BB

Spring 2010

goals of blood collection
Goals Of Blood Collection
  • Maintain viability and function
  • Prevent physical changes
  • Minimize bacterial contamination
anticoagulants preservative solutions
Anticoagulants Preservative Solutions
  • Anticoagulants prevent blood clotting
  • Preservatives provide nutrients for cells
  • Heparin
    • Rarely if ever used anymore
    • Anticoagulant ONLY
    • Transfuse within 48 hours, preferably 8
additive solution
Additive Solution
  • Primary bag with satellite bags attached.
  • One bag has additive solution (AS)
  • Unit drawn into CPD anticoagulant
additive solution6
Additive Solution
  • Remove platelet rich plasma within 72 hours
  • Add additive solution to RBCs, ADSOL, which consists of:
    • Saline
    • Adenine
    • Glucose
    • Mannitol
  • Extends storage to 42 days
  • Final hematocrit approximately 66%
changes occur during storage
Changes Occur During Storage
  • Shelf life = expiration date
    • At end of expiration must have 75% recovery
    • At least 75% of transfused cells remain in circulation 24 hours AFTER transfusion
storage lesion
Storage Lesion
  • Biochemical changes which occur at 1-6C
  • Affects oxygen dissociation curve, increased affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen.
    • Low 2,3-DPG, increased O2 affinity, less O2 released.
    • pH drops causes 2,3-DPG levels to fall
    • Once transfused RBCs regenerate ATP and 2,3-DPG
  • Few functional platelets present
  • Viable (living) RBCs decrease

Plasma hemoglobin

Plasma K+



Viable cells




Plasma Na+

Helps release oxygen from hemoglobin (once transfused, ATP & 2,3-DPG return to normal)

storage lesion10
Storage Lesion
  • Significant for infants and massive transfusion.
  • Other biochemical changes
    • ATP decreases
    • Potassium increases
    • Sodium decreases
    • Plasma hemoglobin increases
preparation of components
Preparation of Components
  • Collect unit within 15 minutes to prevent activation of coagulation system
  • Draw into closed system – primary bag with satellite bags with hermetic seal between.
  • If hermetic seal broken transfuse within 24 hours if stored at 1-4C, 4 hours if stored at 20-24C
preparation of components12
Preparation of Components
  • Centrifuge – light spin, platelets suspended
  • Remove platelet rich plasma (PRP)
  • Centrifuge PRP heavy spin
  • Remove platelet poor plasma
  • Freeze plasma solid within 8 hours
  • Thaw plasma at 1-4C – precipitate forms
  • Centrifuge, express plasma leaving cryoprecipitate. Store both at -18C
  • RBCs – CPD – 21 days, ADSOL – 42 days – 1-6C
preparation of components14
Preparation of Components
  • Summary – One unit of whole blood can produce:
    • Packed RBCs
    • Fresh frozen plasma (FFP)
    • Cryoprecipitate (CRYO)
    • Single donor plasma (SDP) – cyro removed
    • Platelets – terms PC (platelet concentrate) OR RD PC (random donor platelet concentrate)
preparation of components15
Preparation of Components
  • Sterile docking device joins tubing
    • Used to add satellite bags to maintain original expiration of component
    • May be used to pool components
blood component general information
Blood Component General Information
  • Blood separated into components to specifically treat patients with product needed
  • Advantages of component separation
    • Allow optimum survival of each component
    • Transfuse only component needed
blood component general information17
Blood Component General Information
  • Transfusion practice
    • Transfusion requires doctor’s prescription
    • All components MUST be administered through a filter
    • Infuse quickly, within 4 hours
    • D (Rh) neg require D neg cellular products
    • ABO identical preferred, ABO compatible OK
    • “Universal donor” – RBCs group O, plasma AB
blood component general information18
Blood Component General Information
  • Fresh Whole Blood
    • Blood not usually available until 12-24 hours
    • Candidates
      • Newborns needing exchange transfusion
      • Patients requiring leukoreduced products
blood component general information19
Blood Component General Information
  • Summary of storage temperatures:
    • Liquid RBCs 1-6C
    • Platelets, Cryo (thawed) and granulocytes 20-24C (room temperature)
    • ANY frozen plasma product ≤ -18C
    • ANY liquid plasma product EXCEPT Cryo 1-6C
blood components
Blood Components
  • Cellular
    • Red blood cell products
    • Platelets
    • Granulocytes
  • Plasma
    • FFP
    • Cryoprecipitate
whole blood
Whole Blood
  • Clinical indications for use of WB are extremely limited.
  • Used for massive transfusion to correct acute hypovolemia such as in trauma and shock, exchange transfusion.
  • RARELY used today, platelets non-functional, labile coagulation factors gone.
  • Must be ABO identical.
red blood cells packed prbc
Red Blood Cells, Packed (PRBC)
  • Used to treat symptomatic anemia and routine blood loss during surgery
  • Hematocrit is approximately 80% for non-additive (CPD), 60% for additive (ADSOL).
  • Allow WB to sediment or centrifuge WB, remove supernatant plasma.
leukocyte reduced red cells lr rbc
Leukocyte Reduced Red Cells (LR-RBC)
  • Leukocytes can induce adverse affects during transfusion, primarily febrile, non-hemolytic reactions.
  • Reactions to cytokines produced by leukocytes in transfused units.
  • Other explanations to reactions include: immunization of recipient to transfused HLA or granulocyte antigens, micro aggregates and fragmentation of granulocytes.
  • Historically, indicated only for patients who had 2 or more febrile transfusion reactions, now a commonly ordered, popular component.
  • “CMV” safe blood, since CMV lives in WBCs.
  • Most blood centers now leukoreduce blood immediately after collection.
  • Bed side filters are available to leukoreduce products during transfusion.
washed red blood cells w rbcs
Washed Red Blood Cells (W-RBCs)
  • Washing removes plasma proteins, platelets, WBCs and micro aggregates which may cause febrile or urticarial reactions.
  • Patient requiring this product is the IgA deficient patient with anti-IgA antibodies.
  • Prepared by using a machine which washes the cells 3 times with saline to remove and WBCs.
  • Two types of labels:
    • Washed RBCs - do not need to QC for WBCs.
    • Leukocyte Poor WRBCs, QC must be done to guarantee removal of 85% of WBCs. No longer considered effective method for leukoreduction.
  • e. Expires 24 hours after unit is entered.
red blood cells frozen red blood cells deglycerolized d rbc
Red Blood Cells Frozen; Red Blood Cells Deglycerolized (D-RBC)
  • Blood is frozen to preserve: rare types, for autologous transfusion, stock piling blood for military mobilization and/or civilian natural disasters.
  • Blood is drawn into an anticoagulant preservative.
    • Plasma is removed and glycerol is added.
    • After equilibration unit is centrifuged to remove excess glycerol and frozen.
  • Expiration
    • If frozen, 10 years.
    • After deglycerolization, 24 hours.
  • Storage temperature
    • high glycerol -65 C.
    • low glycerol -120 C, liquid nitrogen.
red blood cells frozen red blood cells deglycerolized d rbc31
Red Blood Cells Frozen; Red Blood Cells Deglycerolized (D-RBC)
  • Thaw unit at 37C, thawed RBCs will have high concentration of glycerol.
  • A solution of glycerol of lesser concentration of the original glycerol is added.
  • This causes glycerol to come out of the red blood cells slowly to prevent hemolysis of the RBCs.
  • After a period of equilibration the unit is spun, the solution is removed and a solution with a lower glycerol concentration is added.
  • This procedure is repeated until all glycerol is removed, more steps are required for the high glycerol stored units.
  • The unit is then washed.
rejuvenated red blood cells
Rejuvenated Red Blood Cells
  • A special solution is added to expired RBCs up to 3 days after expiration to restore 2,3-DPG and ATP levels to prestorage values.
  • Rejuvenated RBCs regain normal characteristics of oxygen transport and delivery and improved post transfusion survival.
  • Expiration is 24 hours or, if frozen, 10 years
platelets plts platelet concentrate pc or random donor platelet concentrate rd pc
Platelets (PLTS), Platelet Concentrate (PC) or Random Donor Platelet Concentrate (RD-PC)
  • Used to prevent spontaneous bleeding or stop established bleeding in thrombocytopenic patients.
  • Prepared from a single unit of whole blood.
  • Due to storage at RT it is the most likely component to be contaminated with bacteria.
  • Therapeutic dose for adults is 6 to 10 units.
  • Some patients become "refractory" to platelet therapy.
  • Expiration is 5 days as a single unit, 4 hours if pooled.
  • Store at 20-24 C (RT) with constant agitation.
  • D negative patients should be transfused with D negative platelets due to the presence of a small number of RBCs.
preparation of platelet concentrate
Preparation of platelet concentrate




Platelet concentrate

platelets plts platelet concentrate pc or random donor platelet concentrate rd pc36
Platelets (PLTS), Platelet Concentrate (PC) or Random Donor Platelet Concentrate (RD-PC)
  • One bag from ONE donor
  • Need 6-10 for therapeutic dose
pooling platelets
Pooling Platelets
  • 6-10 units transferred into one bag
  • Expiration = 4 hours
platelets pheresis apheresis platelet concentrate single donor platelet concentrate sd pc
Platelets Pheresis, Apheresis Platelet Concentrate, Single Donor Platelet Concentrate (SD-PC)
  • Used to decrease donor exposure, obtain HLA matched platelets for patients who are refractory to RD-PC or prevent platelet refractoriness from occurring.
  • Prepared by hemapheresis, stored in two connected bags to maintain viability.
  • One pheresed unit is equivalent to 6-8 RD-PC.
  • Store at 20-24 C (RT) with agitation for 5 days, after combining, 24 hours
  • D negative patients should be transfused with D negative platelets due to the presence of a small number of RBCs
platelets pheresis
Platelets Pheresis
  • One bag (unit) from one donor
  • One unit is a therapeutic dose
  • Volume approximately 250 ccs






  • Primary use is for patients with neutropenia who have gram negative infections documented by culture, but are unresponsive to antibiotics.
  • Therapeutic efficacy and indications for granulocyte transfusions are not well defined.
  • Better antimicrobial agents and use of granulocyte and macrophage colony stimulating factors best for adults, best success with this component has been with babies
  • Daily transfusions are necessary.
  • Prepared by hemapheresis.
  • Expiration time is 24 hours but best to infuse ASAP.
  • Store at 20-24 C.
fresh frozen plasma ffp
Fresh Frozen Plasma (FFP)
  • Used to replace labile and non-labile coagulation factors in massively bleeding patients OR treat bleeding associated with clotting factor deficiencies when factor concentrate is not available.
  • Must be frozen within 8 hours of collection.
  • Expiration
    • frozen - 1 year stored at <-18 C.
    • frozen - 7 years stored at <-65 C.thawed - 24 hours
fresh frozen plasma ffp47
Fresh Frozen Plasma (FFP)
  • Storage temperature
    • frozen -18 C, preferably -30 C or lower
    • thawed - 1-6 C
  • Thawed in 30-37C water bath or FDA approved microwave
  • Must have mechanism to detect units which have thawed and refrozen due to improper storage.
  • Must be ABO compatible
plasma liquid plasma recovered plasma and source plasma
Plasma, Liquid Plasma, Recovered Plasma and Source Plasma
  • Used to treat patients with stable clotting factor deficiencies for which no concentrate is available or for patients undergoing therapeutic plasmapheresis.
  • Prepared by separating the plasma from the RBCs on or before the 5th day after expiration of the whole blood.
  • Once separated can:
    • Freeze, store at -18 C for 5 years
    • If not frozen, called liquid plasma, store at 1-6 C for up to 5 days after expiration of WB.
  • Once FFP is one year old can redesignate as Plasma, expiration is 5 years.
pooled plasma solvent detergent treated
Pooled Plasma/Solvent Detergent Treated
  • Most recently licensed product.
  • Prepared from pools of no more than 2500 units of ABO specific plasma frozen to preserve labile coagulation factors.
  • Treated with chemicals to inactivate lipid-enveloped viruses.
  • Contains labile and non-labile coagulation factors but lacks largest Von Willebrand’s factor multimers.
  • Used same as FFP.Safety concerns
    • Decreases disease transmission for diseases tested for.
    • Doesn’t inactivate viruses with non-lipid envelopes: parvo virus B19, hepatitis A, and unrecognized pathogens
cryoprecipitate cryo factor viii or anti hemophilic factor ahf
Cryoprecipitate (CRYO), Factor VIII or Anti-Hemophilic Factor (AHF)
  • Cold insoluble portion of plasma that precipitates when FFP is thawed at 1-6C.
  • Cryoprecipitate contains high levels of Factor VIII and Fibrinogen, used for treatment of hemophiliacs and Von Willebrands when concentrates are not available.
  • Used most commonly for patients with DIC or low fibrinogen levels.
  • A therapeutic dose for an adult is 6 to 10 units.
  • Can be prepared from WB which is then designated as "Whole Blood Cryoprecipitate Removed" or from FFP
    • Plasma is frozen.
    • Plasma is then thawed at 1-6 C, a precipitate forms.
    • Plasma is centrifuged, cryoprecipitate will go to bottom.
    • Remove plasma, freeze within 1 hour of preparation

Cryoprecipitate (VIII, vW)

Thaw at 30-37°C Store at RT 4 hrs


Plasma cryoprecipitate, reduced (TTP, FII, V, Vii, IX, X, XI)

Frozen within 8 hours

Thawed FFP

Refrozen with 24 hrs of separation Store at ≤18°C 1 yr

5 day expiration at 1-6°C

cryoprecipitate cryo factor viii or anti hemophilic factor ahf52
Cryoprecipitate (CRYO), Factor VIII or Anti-Hemophilic Factor (AHF)
  • Storage Temperature
    • Frozen -18 C or lower
    • Thawed - room temperature
  • Expiration:
    • Frozen 1 year
    • Thawed 6 hours
    • Pooled 4 hours
  • Best to be ABO compatible but not important due to small volume
irradiation of blood components55
Irradiation of Blood Components
  • Cellular blood components are irradiated to destroy viable T- lymphocytes which may cause Graft Versus Host Disease (GVHD).
  • GVHD is a disease that results when immunocompetent, viable lymphocytes in donor blood engraft in an immunocompromised host, recognize the patient tissues as foreign and produce antibodies against patient tissues, primarily skin, liver and GI tract. The resulting disease has serious consequences including death.
  • GVHD may be chronic or acute
irradiation of blood components56
Irradiation of Blood Components
  • Patients at greatest risk are:
    • severely immunosuppressed,
    • immunocompromised,
    • receive blood donated by relatives, or
    • fetuses receiving intrauterine transfusions
  • Irradiation inactivates lymphocytes, leaving platelets, RBCs and granulocytes relatively undamaged.
  • Must be labeled "irradiated".
  • Expiration date of Red Blood Cell donor unit changes to 28 days.
  • May be transfused to "normal" patients if not used by intended recipient.
donor blood inspection and disposition
Donor Blood Inspection and Disposition
  • It is required that donor units be inspected periodically during storage and prior to issuing to patient.
  • The following may indicate an unacceptable unit:
    • Red cell mass looks purple or clots are visible.
    • Zone of hemolysis observed just above RBC mass, look for hemolysis in sprigs, especially those closest to the unit.
    • Plasma or supernatant plasma appears murky, purple, brown or red.
    • A greenish hue need not cause a unit to be rejected.
    • Inspect platelets for aggregates.
  • Inspect FFP and CRYO for signs of thawing, evidence of cracks in bag, or unusual turbidity in CRYO or FFP (i.e., extreme lipemia).
inspection of donor blood
Inspection of Donor Blood
  • Segment closest to unit is hemolyzed.
  • May indicate bacterial contamination
donor blood inspection and disposition60
Donor Blood Inspection and Disposition
  • If a unit's appearance looks questionable do the following:
    • Quarantine unit until disposition is decided.
    • Gently mix, allow to settle and observe appearance.
  • If bacterial contamination is suspected the unit should be cultured and a gram stain performed.
  • Positive blood cultures usually indicative of:
    • Inadequate donor arm preparation
    • Improper pooling technique
    • Health of donor - bacteremia in donor
  • If one component is contaminated, other components prepared from the same donor unit may be contaminated.
inspection of donor blood61
Inspection of Donor Blood
  • Reissuing blood cannot be done unless the following criteria is met:
    • Container closure must not have been penetrated or entered in any manner.
    • Most facilities set 30" time limit for accepting units back, warming above 6-10C even with subsequent cooling increases RBC metabolism producing hemolysis and permitting bacterial growth.
    • Blood must have been kept at the appropriate temperature.
    • One sealed segment must remain attached to container.
    • Records must indicate that blood has been reissued and inspected prior to reissue.
transportation of blood and blood components
Transportation of Blood and Blood Components
  • WB and RBC
    • Sturdy well insulated cardboard and/or styrofoam container, wet ice in ziplock bag to cool, temperature must be monitored.
    • Mobile collection units should transport blood ASAP and leave at RT if platelets are to be made.
    • In-house transport place in cooler with wet ice and thermometer, monitor temperature every 30 minutes.
transportation of blood and blood components64
Transportation of Blood and Blood Components
  • Frozen components
    • Temperature must be maintained at or below required storage temperature.
    • Use dry ice in well insulated container.
  • Platelets and granulocytes
    • Maintain at 20-24 C.
    • Transport in well insulated containers without ice.
  • Commercial coolers available to maintain at 20-24C.
transportation of blood and blood components65
Transportation of Blood and Blood Components
  • Handling donor units
    • Should not remain at RT unnecessarily, when blood is issued it should be transfused as soon as possible.
    • When numerous units are removed from fridge, remove fluid filled container with a thermometer at same time as blood, when temperature reaches 6 C return to fridge.
Must be made concurrently with each step of component preparation, being as detailed as possible for clear understanding.

Must be legible and indelible.

Must include dates of various steps and person responsible.