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Roman Gladiators Modern Stereotypes Thumbs Down! Jean-Léon Gérôme. “Police Verso” (“Thumbs Down”), 1872 Types of Evidence Literary (Mahoney) Material Artistic Representations Artifacts (Equipment) Tombstones Inscriptions

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Thumbs Down!

Jean-Léon Gérôme. “Police Verso” (“Thumbs Down”), 1872


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Types of Evidence

  • Literary (Mahoney)

  • Material

    Artistic Representations

    Artifacts (Equipment)

    Tombstones

    Inscriptions

Terracotta Figurine of a Gladiator in the New York Metropolitan Museum of Art

Roman, 1st-2nd century ADAccession # 10.210.78


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Literary Evidence:Thumbs Up!

Juvenal. Satire 3.34-37

The one-time horn players, traveling to municipal arenas, their puffed-out cheeks known in all the little towns, are now putting on their on munera, and when the crowd gives the order with upturned thumb, they kill just as the people want.







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Some gladiatorial vocabulary:

  • tiro: a gladiatorial recruit

  • veteranus: those gladiators who had fought at least once

  • lanista: a gladiatorial trainer

  • armatura: gladiatorial equipment

  • myrmillo: heavily-armed footman with a fish on his helmets

  • Samnite: heavily-armed footman

  • secutor: heavily-armed footman

  • Thraex: light-armed footman bearing a shield and reversed sickle

  • retiarius: unhelmeted footman armed with only tunic, net, trident and dagger

  • essedarius: chariot fighter

  • familia: a troop of gladiators

  • ludus: a place of residence and training of gladiators

  • ludia: female gladiator; women associated with gladiators; "a female slave attached to a gladiatorial ludus" (OLD)

  • munus: gladiatorial show



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Zliten Mosaic

Originally in a Roman seaside villa

Now in Archaeological Musuem

Tripoli, Tunisia


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Fragment of a Relief Showing Gladiators in the New York Metropolitan Museum of Art

Roman, 1st-3rd century ADRecorded ca. 1880 in the Vigna Aquari in Rome.Accession # 57.11.


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Gladiator cup Metropolitan Museum of Art , ca. 50–80 A.D.; Neronian–Early FlavianicRoman; Found at Montagnole, southern France

Now in New York Metropolitan Museum of Art

Glass; H. 2 7/8 in. (7.3 cm), Diam. 3 1/8 in. (7.9 cm)Gift of Henry G. Marquand, 1881 (81.10.245)


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Ancient Mosaic Metropolitan Museum of Art now in Bourghese Gallery, Rome


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Gladiator Mosaic Metropolitan Museum of Art Bad Kreuznach(Germany)

http://romanhistorybooksandmore.freeservers.com/p_kreuzn_g.htm


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Gladitorial Tombstones Metropolitan Museum of Art