Thumbs Down! Jean-Léon Gérôme. “Police Verso” (“Thumbs Down”), 1872
Types of Evidence • Literary (Mahoney) • Material Artistic Representations Artifacts (Equipment) Tombstones Inscriptions Terracotta Figurine of a Gladiator in the New York Metropolitan Museum of Art Roman, 1st-2nd century ADAccession # 10.210.78
Literary Evidence:Thumbs Up! Juvenal. Satire 3.34-37 The one-time horn players, traveling to municipal arenas, their puffed-out cheeks known in all the little towns, are now putting on their on munera, and when the crowd gives the order with upturned thumb, they kill just as the people want.
Some gladiatorial vocabulary: • tiro: a gladiatorial recruit • veteranus: those gladiators who had fought at least once • lanista: a gladiatorial trainer • armatura: gladiatorial equipment • myrmillo: heavily-armed footman with a fish on his helmets • Samnite: heavily-armed footman • secutor: heavily-armed footman • Thraex: light-armed footman bearing a shield and reversed sickle • retiarius: unhelmeted footman armed with only tunic, net, trident and dagger • essedarius: chariot fighter • familia: a troop of gladiators • ludus: a place of residence and training of gladiators • ludia: female gladiator; women associated with gladiators; "a female slave attached to a gladiatorial ludus" (OLD) • munus: gladiatorial show
Zliten Mosaic Originally in a Roman seaside villa Now in Archaeological Musuem Tripoli, Tunisia
Fragment of a Relief Showing Gladiators in the New York Metropolitan Museum of Art Roman, 1st-3rd century ADRecorded ca. 1880 in the Vigna Aquari in Rome.Accession # 57.11.
Gladiator cup, ca. 50–80 A.D.; Neronian–Early FlavianicRoman; Found at Montagnole, southern France Now in New York Metropolitan Museum of Art Glass; H. 2 7/8 in. (7.3 cm), Diam. 3 1/8 in. (7.9 cm)Gift of Henry G. Marquand, 1881 (81.10.245)
Gladiator MosaicBad Kreuznach(Germany) http://romanhistorybooksandmore.freeservers.com/p_kreuzn_g.htm