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  1. Africa Geography

  2. Desert

  3. Mountains

  4. BandiagaraMali, West Africa • Tellem ruins

  5. World Heritage Site, famous for its Bushman rock art estimated more than 5 000 individual paintings of between 800 and over 2 000 years old. Tsodilo Hills

  6. Giza Pyramid

  7. Rivers & Lakes

  8. Nile River •

  9. Most of the country is desert; the Niger river is its lifeblood. After the rains have come, between June and September, the small tributaries of the river Niger join to form larger rivers. In the dry season, this evaporates into unconnected lakes and ponds, in which the catfish that were spawned in the river emerge. The other lakes are fished the year round, but Antogo has a particular significance. Legend has it that the lake was discovered in ancient times by a young girl from Bamba village. She told her sister in the neighboring village of Yanda about the profusion of fish, and her brother-in-law claimed the lake for Yanda. But her father staked a claim on it too, and tribal war broke out. Eventually her father and his fellow tribesmen won the battle, and even today only Bamba men can take part in the great fishing ceremony. Niger River, Mali

  10. Zambezi River

  11. Lake Malawi

  12. Desert

  13. Sahara Desert

  14. Namib Desert

  15. Kalahari Desert

  16. The word “Kalahari” comes from a Tswana word meaning “the great thirst.” • The desert, itself, covers 70% of Botswana and extends south into South Africa, west into Namibia, and north into Angola and Zambia.  • More a semi—arid zone than a true desert, one of the essential features of this region is a geological formation known as a "pan," a round mostly hard, gray clay formation. • Pans are hollow shallows which gleam in the sunlight from the salt in them; these salt deposits are important to the animals in the area. • During the rainy season in March and April, large migrating herds of animals come for the water that collects in the pans. • During this rainy season, the Okavango delta, a significant wetland system north of the Kahalari, attracts an incredible number of birds; including cranes, egrets, herons, and a variety of raptors.

  17. Mountains

  18. Kilimanjaro 19340 ft     Highest point in Africa Location: Northern Tanzania, near Kenya

  19. Mount Kenya    17058 ft     Highest point in Kenya .

  20. To the local Kikuyu tribe, Mt. Kenya is the home of their God, Ngai, and the location of their creation mythology. • The Mt Kenya Forest is considered a sacred area where medicinal plants are grown and healing rituals conducted.

  21. Mount Stanley    16763 ft     Highest point in Congo and Uganda

  22. Mount Cameroon(Mont Cameroun)    13435 ft     Highest point in Cameroon .

  23. Pico del Teide    12198 ft    . Location: Tenerife in the Canary Islands, NW of Africa

  24. Jebel Toubkal    13665 ft     Highest point in MoroccoAtlas Mountains, south of Marrakech, Morocco

  25. Jebel Siroua    10843 ft Between Atlas and Anti-Atlas Mountains, south of Marrakech, Morocco

  26. Lake VictoriaIts originalname was Nalubale

  27. the cave, the paintings and the surrounding area retain powers in the traditions of the Abasuba. The Wasamo clan, who live around the cave, are the rain makers of the Abasuba, and the elders agree that the paintings have been used for rain making ceremonies, with the red paintings representing the moon and the white ones representing the sun.

  28. Giza Pyramid

  29. World Heritage Site, famous for its Bushman rock art estimated more than 5 000 individual paintings of between 800 and over 2 000 years old. Tsodilo Hills

  30. BandiagaraMali, West Africa • Tellem ruins

  31. Bandiagara Escarpment (Cliffs of Bandiagara)

  32. Cliff of Bandiagara

  33. The Dogon of Bandiagara in Mali, West Africa. • the Toloy culture of the 3rd to 2nd centuries BC, and the Tellem culture of the 11th to 15th centuries AD were early inhabitants • Dogon religion is defined primarily through the worship of the ancestors and the spirits called Nommo • There are three principal religious societies among the Dogon; the Awa, Lebe and Binu

  34. The Awa is associated with the spiritual realm whose purpose is to reorder the spiritual forces disturbed by the death of Nommo, a mythological ancestor of the Dogon. The awa dance with ornate carved and painted masks during both funeral and death anniversary ceremonies. There are 78 different types of ritual masks among the Dogon focus on religion and philosophy.

  35. The society of Lebe, the Earth God, is primarily concerned with the agricultural cycle and its chief priest is called a Hogon. All Dogon villages have a Lebe shrine whose altars have bits of earth incorporated into them to encourage the continued fertility of the land.

  36. The god Lebe visits the hogons every night in the form of a serpent and licks their skins in order to purify them and infuse them with life force. • The hogons are responsible for guarding the purity of the soil and therefore officiate at many agricultural ceremonies.

  37. The society of Binu is a totemic practice and it has complex associations with the Dogon's sacred places used for ancestor worship, spirit communication and agricultural sacrifices. • major Dogon sacred sites are related to episodes in the Dogon myth of the creation of the world, in particular to a deity named Nommo.

  38. Binu shrines house spirits of mythic ancestors who lived in the legendary era before the appearance of death among mankind. Binu spirits often make themselves known to their descendants in the form of an animal that interceded on behalf of the clan during its founding or migration, thus becoming the clan's totem. Binu Shrine

  39. The priests of each Binu maintain the shrine. • Sacrifices of blood and millet porridge the primary crop of the Dogon are made at the Binu shrines at sowing time and whenever the intercession of the immortal ancestor is desired. • Through such rituals, the Dogon believe that the benevolent force of the ancestor is transmitted to them.

  40. diviner draws a questions in the sand for the sacred fox to answer The Dogon people believe the fox has supernatural powers. The Dogon may ask questions and n the morning, the diviner will read the fox prints on the sand and make interpretations.

  41. Astronomy • The Dogon are famous for their astronomical knowledge taught through oral tradition, dating back thousands of years, referencing the star system, Sirius, the dog star. • Their oral traditions say this knowledge was given to them by the Nommo.

  42. The Dogon priests claimed that Sirius had a companion star that was invisible to the human eye. • They also stated that the star moved in a 50-year elliptical orbit around Sirius, that it was small and incredibly heavy, and that it rotated on its axis. • This was verified in 1862 by Alvan Clark who “discovered” the second star making Sirius a binary star system (two stars).

  43. The earliest Egyptians believed Sirius - 'Sothis' - was the home of souls that have crossed over. It is the brightest star in our night sky. This belief is also shared with the Dogon. • The Dogons have described perfectly the DNA pattern made by an elliptical orbit created by the two stars of Sirius as they rotate make around each other. They believe Sirius to be the axis of the universe, and from it all matter and all souls are produced in a great spiral motion.