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FLOWMETER SELECTION. “Everything you forget to ask yourself before applying a flowmeter, that comes back to bite you in the rear later on.”. FLOWMETER SELECTION. NOT A “NO BRAINER” LESSER OF ALL EVILS MANY DIFFERENT TECHNOLOGIES TO CHOOSE FROM TIERED OFFERINGS WITHIN TECHNOLOGIES

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flowmeter selection
FLOWMETER SELECTION

“Everything you forget to ask yourself before applying a flowmeter, that comes back to bite you in the rear later on.”

flowmeter selection1
FLOWMETER SELECTION

NOT A “NO BRAINER”

  • LESSER OF ALL EVILS
  • MANY DIFFERENT TECHNOLOGIES TO CHOOSE FROM
  • TIERED OFFERINGS WITHIN TECHNOLOGIES
  • CONTROL SYSTEMS
why measure the flow
WHY MEASURE THE FLOW?
  • PERMIT REPORTING REQUIREMENTS
  • HOW MUCH IS PRODUCED
  • HOW MUCH IS CONSUMED
  • BLENDING: CONTINUOUS OR BATCH
  • CUSTODY TRANSFER BETWEEN UTILITIES
  • MONITOR / INDICATE
various flowmeter types
VARIOUS FLOWMETER TYPES

HEAD PRODUCING (DP)

- ORIFICE

- NOZZLE

- VENTURI

- WEDGE

- ANNUBAR / PITOT TUBE

- ELBOW TAP

- TARGET

- VARIABLE AREA / ROTAMETER

- VENTURI CONE

POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT

- DIAPHRAGM SEAL

- MECHANICAL SEAL

VELOCITY

- TURBINE

- ELECTROMAGNETIC

- VORTEX

- ULTRASONIC

- SONAR

DIRECT MASS

- CORIOLIS

- THERMAL

INFERED MASS

- MULTI-VARIABLE DP

flowmeter selection factors
FLOWMETER SELECTION FACTORS

* FLUID PROPERTIES

LIQUID OR GAS

TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE

DENSITY OR S.G.

VISCOSITY

LUBRICITY

CHEMICAL MAKEUP

ABRASIVENESS

MULTIPLE PHASES

SOLIDS CONTENT

flowmeter selection factors1
FLOWMETER SELECTION FACTORS

* INSTALLATION CONSIDERATIONS

ORIENTATION

FLOW DIRECTION

UPSTREAM AND DOWNSTREAM ELEMENTS

SERVICE ACCESS

VIBRATION

ELECTRICAL CLASSIFICATION

RFI AND EMI

CAVITATION

INTERMITTENT / PULSATING FLOW

SIZE / WEIGHT

flowmeter selection factors2
FLOWMETER SELECTION FACTORS

* PERFORMANCE CONSIDERATIONS

ACCURACY

REPEATABILITY

LINEARITY

HYSTERESIS

RANGEABILITY / TURNDOWN

UPDATE RATE

DEAD TIME

RESPONSE TIME

STABILITY / FILTER CAPABILITY

TOTAL PROBABLE ERROR

flowmeter selection factors3
FLOWMETER SELECTION FACTORS

* ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS

AMBIENT TEMPERATURE EFFECTS

BAROMETRIC PRESSURE EFFECTS

FUGITIVE EMISSIONS POTENTIAL

HUMIDITY EFFECTS

SAFETY FACTORS

SUBMERGENCE POTENTIAL

LIGHTNING PROTECTION

AREA CLASSIFICATION

flowmeter selection factors4
FLOWMETER SELECTION FACTORS

* ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS

PURCHASE PRICE

INSTALLATION COSTS

OPERATING COSTS

CALIBRATION COSTS

MAINTENANCE COSTS

INSTRUMENT LIFE

RELIABILITY

SPARES COST AND AVAILABILITY

PUMPING COST FROM HEADLOSS

PROCESS / PLANT OPTIMIZATION

flowmeter selection process

FLUID

PROPERTIES

PERFORMANCE

INSTALLATION

ECONOMIC

FACTORS

APPLICATION

CONTROL

MONITOR

INDICATE

CUSTODY TRANSFER

LIQUID, GAS, STEAM

CONDUCTIVITY

MULTI-PHASE

VISCOSITY

PRESSURE

TEMPERATURE

ACCURACY

REPEATABILITY

TEMPERATURE EFFECT

LINE SIZE

VIBRATION

PIPE RUNS

SUBMERGENCE

COST

INSTALLATION

RELIABILITY

ENVIRONMENTAL

& SAFETY

METER

SELECTED

TO VENDORS

EMMISSIONS

HAZARDOUS WASTE DISPOSAL

LEAK POTENTIAL

SHUT DOWN SYSTEM?

CORIOLIS

DP

MAGMETER

VORTEX

FLOWMETER SELECTION PROCESS
theory of operation

Variable

Flow Rate

(ft/s)

SST Tube

Conductive

Process

Medium

Flange

Faraday’s Law: E=kBDV

k=Proportionality constant

B=Magnetic field strength

D=Length of conductor

V=Velocity of conductor

E=Induced voltage (linear with velocity)

Lining

Field

Coils

“E”

Sensing

Electrodes

“E”

MAG METER BASICS

Theory of Operation
slide13

MAGNETIC FLOWMETER BASICS

PROS AND CONS

PROS CONS

TRUE VOLUME INITIAL COST (AC)

ACCURACY CONDUCTIVITY

WIDE RANGEABILITY MATERIAL COMPATIBILITY

LOW FLOW CAPABILITY NUMBER OF DESIGNS

ZERO HEAD LOSS VELOCITY LIMITS

BI-DIRECTIONAL/OBSTRUCTIONLESS

INSENSITIVITY TO UPSTREAM PIPING

slide14

MAGNETIC FLOWMETER BASICS

ACCURACY: +/- 0.2% TO 1%

RANGEABILITY: 10:1 TO 50:1

REYNOLDS NUMBER: NO LIMIT

PIPING EFFECTS: MINIMAL

COST OF OWNERSHIP: INITIAL: L/H

INSTALLATION: L/M OPERATION: M

MAINTENANCE: L/M

slide15
Less Than Ideal Straight

Run Installation Testing

introduction
Introduction
  • Standard specification for straight run piping to maintain specified accuracy
    • 5 pipe diameters upstream
    • 2 pipe diameters downstream
    • Distance measured from electrodes (center of the flowtube)
    • What if this requirement is not met?
test results summary
Test Results Summary
  • Readings were offset by 0 to 3%
    • Offset could be positive or negative
  • Flow readings were repeatable to within 0.1%
  • Reading offset was dependent on the type of disturbance, length of upstream straight run, line size, and position of electrodes
  • Reading offset was independent of flow rate (velocity) within lab accuracy
short run test setup
Short Run Test Setup

Weigh Tank

TestMagmeter

ReferenceMagmeter

Upstream Dimensions

Upstream Disturbance

  • Summary of Tests:
  • ½, 4, 10 and 24-inch meters
  • 4 inch test had extended scope, other line sizes had limited scope
rosemount magmeter 4 inch test scope
Rosemount Magmeter4-inch Test Scope

Test Magmeter

Weigh Tank

ReferenceMagmeter

  • Upstream Dimensions:
  • 0D
  • 1D
  • 2D
  • 3D
  • Upstream Disturbance:
  • Single Short-radius Elbow
  • Double Short Radius Elbow Out of plane
  • Double Short Radius Elbow In plane
  • 6 x 4 inch Reducer
  • Gate Valve in 3 positions
  • Butterfly valve in 3 positions
  • Summary of Tests:
  • 6 points per run (average is recorded)
  • 6 velocities from about ½ to 25 ft/s
4 inch single elbow setup
4-inch: Single Elbow Setup
  • Piping schematic for the 4-inch single elbow test
    • Reference meter installed with more than 5D up and 2D down
    • Adjustable pipe sections used to test various lengths of upstream straight run

Adjusted for different upstream lengths

Similar piping schematics were used for the other disturbances and line sizes tested

overall summary
Overall Summary
  • Best practice for magmeter installations is to have straight run of 5 pipe diameters upstream and 2 pipe diameters downstream
  • Less than ideal straight run will cause an offset or shift in the reading
    • Reading will still be repeatable
  • Reading offset is dependent on type of upstream disturbance, length of upstream straight run, line size, and position of electrodes, but independent of velocity
  • Correction factor could be entered electronically to accommodate the shift in reading