Strength Training as a Supplement to APFT Training Why is this important? Has everyone at USMA been part of a lifting program in the past?
Strength & Endurance Strength = Most force a muscle or muscle-group can exert in a single effort. Endurance = The ability of a muscle to exert sub-maximal force repeatedly for an extended duration.
Strength & Endurance Strength or Endurance What does a cadet need to succeed on the APFT? What comes first?
Important Terms • 1RM – (one repetition maximum) the most that can be lifted at one time, a measure of strength, used to calculate weight for submaximal lifts • Power - the rate of application of strength, product of speed & strength (force) • Hypertrophy - increased size of muscle fibers • Atrophy - decreased size of muscle fibers.
90-Day APFT Remediation Plan • 3 phases to 90-day plan • Base • Build • Peak • Strength/Weight Training must complement daily PT • Strength/Weight Training must mesh with 90-day plan & phases
Basic Principles of Periodization Base – 4-8 weeks – low level progression of intensity & volume, incorporating a variety of exercises Build – 4-10 weeks - gradually increase progression of intensity and/or volume; incorporate exercise specificity Peak (aka taper or pre competition) – 1 to 2 weeks immediately prior to event or competition; reduce volume, intensity high, event specific movement Recovery – 1-3 weeks, reduced volume & intensity, rest, variety of exercises
Strength Training Phases Hypertrophy / Endurance Basic Strength - Maximum Strength Muscular Endurance or Strength & Power Strength Maintenance
Hypertrophy & Endurance Hypertrophy / Endurance: 3-6 wks; low intensity-high volume; concurrent with Base Type of Exercise: Very general; working all muscle groups; not specific to goal event Volume: 3-6 sets; 10-20 reps Intensity: 50-75% 1RM
Basic Strength Basic Strength: 3-6 wks; increasing intensity-decrease volume; concurrent w/ Base Type of Exercise: Begin to narrow focus to goal event muscles Intensity: Increasing loads to high intensity – 80-90% 1RM Volume: Moderate – 3-5sets of 4-8 reps
Maximum Strength Maximum Strength: 1-3wks; very high intensity; low volume; concurrent w/ early Build phase Type of Exercise: Very specific to goal event (APFT) Intensity: Very high – 75-95% of 1RM Volume: low – 3-5 sets of 2-5 reps
Strength Training Phases Muscular Endurance or Strength & Power: for most APFT failures will focus on ME not S&P; lower intensity-very high volume; concurrent with late Build phase ME Type of Exercise: Specific to goal event (APFT) Intensity: Low – less than 67% 1RM Volume: 12 or more reps; 2-3 sets For APFT 30+ reps is acceptable
Strength Training Phases Strength Maintenance: Used for competitive athletes during in-season maintenance of strength & power gains. Most non-competitive athletes would use this period as a recovery period – with minimal lifting Length: 2-3 weeks
Upper Body Exercise for APFT • Bench Press & Dumbbell Bench • Incline/Decline Bench • Dumbbell Flys • Arm Crossover • Pull overs • Overhead press • Lateral Raises • Front Raises • Upright Row • Dips • Pull-Ups / Chin-ups • Arm curls • Reverse curls • Triceps pushdowns • French curls • Lat pulls • Back Extensions
Lower Body Exercise for APFT Isometric Abdominal exercise Crunches Bent Knee sit-ups Abdominal Machines Twists Rotary Torso Hanging Knee Raises Hip-flexion Leg Press Knee Extensions Knee Curls Heel/Calf Raises
Spotter Skills & Responsibilities • Be strong enough to assist with the weight being lifted. • Know the proper form of the exercise and the spot. • Establish signals for beginning and ending of the exercise with the lifter. • Pay constant attention during the lift, but don’t interfere unless necessary or requested, i.e. forced repetitions. • Pay particular attention to collars or weights plates that are sliding. You may have to intervene immediately.
Exercise Sequencing • Exercise large muscle groups first • Multi-joint before single • Alternate push with pull exercises • In succession versus alternating sets • Triceps & biceps exercises after other upper body exercises
Maximizing Adaptations to Hypertrophy & Strength Training? • Use the concept of periodization – plan your workouts - you can’t go 100% all the time. • Don’t use forced repetitions/negatives every workout. • Allow for recovery, which includes sleep, nutrition, hydration, and mental rest. • Do push yourself when you have a hard workout scheduled. • Use the concept of hard/easy days. • For beginners, working on exercise form and regularity are very important to ensure gains.
Strength/Endurance Training Points • Correct movement in strength training is a must for maximizing the benefits of your effort! Form is everything. • Emphasize technique first and amount of weight second. • Do not hold your breath while lifting. • Exhale while moving the weight against gravity. • Inhale while lowering the weight. • Partners/Spotters key for strength gains (isokinetic assist). • Use light weights and slow movement to learn proper technique of any new exercise • Don’t twist while lifting.
MS/ME & PROVIRRBS Progression - as muscle adapts, increase the workload through volume (wt x reps x sets) but not too much too soon. Detailed record keeping helps to log your gains. Regularity - find the right frequency for working each exercise for you (legs, upper body, abs, compound, simple) and work it into a long-range plan (plan for gains and for maintenance). Overload - the need to adjust the resistance and/or # of reps.
MS/ME and PROVIRRBS (cont) Variety - in equipment, exercises, volume, velocity, and intensity (periodization) are good ways to avoid boredom, enhance adherence, and maintain progression Individuality – finding what works best for YOU in your resistance training workouts Recovery – minimum 48 and possibly 72-94 hours following intense, workouts Realism - success = a long term, realistic plan. Use good time management and plan what is doable; a lifetime perspective.
MS/ME and PROVIRRBS (cont) Balance - upper and lower body, flexors and extensors for all major joints and movements. “Every pushing movement has an opposite pulling movement”. Specificity - work must involve the exact muscle groups that need improvement. 1. To gain strength you must use high resistance (weight). 2. To gain endurance you must do multiple sets and higher repetitions.
The Need for Balance Improving MS/ME and PROVIRRBS • Balance strength & size of opposing muscle groups, for strong joints, proportional physique, & good posture. • Upper body with lower body • NOTE: Running is NOT resistance training for the lower body!! • Chest with upper back • Biceps with Triceps • Abdominals with lower back • Quads with hamstrings
How Do We Get Stronger? • Neural recruitment (first 2 to 8 weeks) • Increased impulse frequency • Number of stimulations sent to the fiber • Increased motor unit recruitment • More and more fibers recruited • Hypertrophy
How do we get stronger? • Neural recruitment - (first 2 - 8 weeks) • Hypertrophy – increase in CSA of muscle(gains not visible until 4 weeks or more after beginning lifting)