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Colloids and SurfacePhenomena Aspects Of Make Up and Lipstick. Group Members CHAIN, KOK KEONG LE, DIEUHANH THI MCLAUGHLIN, KELLY E VAN NATTER, RAINEE M Date: 18 th April 2002 Introduction Definition of Cosmetic Ingredients Overview of Customer Requirements

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Colloids and SurfacePhenomena Aspects Of Make Up and Lipstick.

Group Members





Date: 18th April 2002

  • Definition of Cosmetic Ingredients
  • Overview of Customer Requirements
  • Role by Polymer and Surfactants
  • Application in Cosmetic Products:
    • Eye shadow and Blush
    • Lipstick
    • Liquid Cream
    • Pressed Powder for both pale and dark skin
overview of cosmetic
Overview of Cosmetic
  • Consumer aspect
    • High quality
    • Safe or non allergic
    • Reasonable Price
    • Multiple Performance
    • Long Wearing
role by polymer and surfactant
Role by Polymer And Surfactant
  • Polymer
    • gel like, long chain carbon with cross-linked conformation
      • Encapsulation
      • Firm distribution
      • High internal surface areas, ideal sorption and desorption mechanism
  • Surfactant
    • hydrophilic head group + hydrophobic tail
      • Emollients, wetting agents, and emulsifying agents,humectants
      • To promote lubricant, adhesiveness, slip and covering purposes
what are pressed powder properties
What are pressed powder properties?
  • Slip
    • Spread Easily, smooth feeling
    • Rhapsody, Zinc Stearate
  • Adhesiveness
    • Cling Together
    • Zinc Stearate, Octyl Palmitate
  • Other Ingredients
    • Coloring Pigments, Iron Oxide
    • Shininess Appearance
    • Not over darkness and chalkiness
action and mechanism
Action and Mechanism
  • Zinc Stearate
    • Zn (C18H35O2)2,
    • long hydrocarbon chain
    • ideal physicals
      • < 6% of moisture, alkaline, soluble in mineral oils
    • promoting the powder flow ability
    • reduced the interfacial tension
  • Octyl Palmitate
    • as liquid binder,
    • provide cohesion
    • as emulsifier, emollients
  • Iron Oxide
    • (Fe2O3) , Color Pigment
how to produce make up
How to Produce make up?
  • Guidelines by Ultra. Chemical Inc.
    • pulverize or to crush Rhapsody talc in to powder form
    • compress them into pan utilizing (200psi – 2000psi )
  • Purpose:
    • Protect lips from hard weather
    • Color lips
  • Objectives:
    • Variation in color from application to application
    • Lasts all day
    • Removable with cleansers
  • Basic categories of lipsticks:
    • Matte:heavy in wax and pigment but lighter in emollients.
    • Gloss: less wax and more oil to make the lips shinier.
    • Long lasting: contains silicone oil, which seals the color the lips.
    • Satin: combination of gloss and matte lipsticks.
    • Frosted: include a pearl zing agent that adds luster to the color.
  • Example of Lipsticks, Matte
  • Formulation composition*

Components Range % by wt Preferred by wt

  • Candellela Wax 3.0-9.0 3.0
  • Ozokerite 1.0-4.0 1.0
  • Paraffin wax 2.0-5.0 2.0
  • Isosteryl Isostearated 2.0-10.0 10.0
  • Ultrapure HMP-S 8.0-10.0 10.0
  • Capric/Caprylic Triglyceride 2.0-10.0 10.0
  • Castor Oil QS 51.6
  • Propyl Paraben 0.10 0.10
  • Tocopheryl Acetate 0.1-1.0 0.10
  • Colorants: D&C #7 CA lake 0.0-4.0 0.30
  • Red Oxide 0.0-3.0 1.5
  • Rhapsody Talc 4M 2.0-10.0 10.0

Total 100.0

*Ultra Chemical Inc.

  • Function of Ingredients
    • Emollients

a. Castor oil:-extracted from castor plant

b. Capric/Caprylic Triglyceride:-oily liquid extract from plant vegetable oil and dairy fats.

c. Isostearyl Isostearate

2. Emulsifiers

a. Paraffin Wax:-derived from petroleum

b. Ozokerite Wax:-ceresin wax, naturally occurs in mineral wax.

    • Preservatives

a. Propyl Parahen:-propyl-4-hydroxylbenzoate and prepare from p-bromophenol

    • Colorants

a. D&C Red #7 CA lake:

b. Red Oxide

c. Ultrapure HMP-S

    • Binders

a. Candellia wax

  • Processing

1. Heat the ingredients to 75-85degree Celsius

2. Mix until the batch is smooth and uniform

lipstick shapes packaging and price

*There are different shapes and packaging of lipsticks. The prices are ranging from $1.99 to $29.99, depending to the Brand name of product, such as Lancôme , Avon, L’Oreal, etc.

LipstickShapes, packaging and price
eyeshadow rouge

~40 sec

Eyeshadow & Rouge
  • Purpose:
    • To provide color
  • Requirements & Objectives:
    • Contain pigments
    • Adhere to skin
    • Have adequate “slip” to spread onto skin
    • Limited solubility in perspiration (to avoid streaking), but easily removable with cleansers
    • Safe for eyes (preservatives)
Liquid suspension/emulsion

(Almay, Inc.)

(Black Opal/BioCosmetic Research Labs)

(Wet N Wild)


~25 sec


Solid, creamy

Dry, Compact

Solid, stick

rouge eyeshadow ingredients

(Brief Overview Slide)

Rouge/Eyeshadow Ingredients
  • Filler
  • Pigments and Opacifiers
  • Binders
  • Emulsifiers
  • Emollients
  • Preservatives
  • Absorbents
  • Perfume Carriers
  • Viscosity controllers/thickeners
main ingredients

Talc already discussed (kkc) -don’t describe in detail

Below: esters and oils

Main Ingredients
  • Dry, Compact Cosmetics:
    • Talc (3MgO·4SiO2·H2O) (Filler)
        • “Slip” and shine due to lamellar structure
        • Very soft
        • White
        • Adheres to skin evenly
  • Liquid/Gel Rouges:
    • Water (Solvent)
  • Cream/Solid Cosmetics:
    • Caprylic/capric triglyceride (Solvent & Emollient)
    • Octyl Palmitate (Binder & Emollient)
    • Mineral Oil (Binder)
    • Castor Oil (see “Lipsticks”)

(Marmion, Sagarin 223-224)

pigments opacifiers

~15 sec

Pigments & Opacifiers
  • Purpose:
    • To provide the color for the cosmetic
    • Opacifiers increase the opaqueness (coverage) of the applied cosmetic color
  • Objectives:
    • Should not change color, bleed, or streak with pH changes, water, or oil (perspiration)
    • Should not fade significantly when exposed to light
    • Be heat stable
    • Be easy to add into product
    • Be non-toxic
    • All pigments of same particle size

(Sagarin 229-235, Poucher III 283)

common inorganic pigments






White (Filler, Opacifier)

Zinc Oxide


White/yellowish white (Opacifier)

Titanium dioxide


White (Opacifier)


K2Al4(Al2Si6O20)(OH4) or H2KAl3(SiO4)3

White, pearlescence

Carbon black



Iron Oxides



Iron Oxides, ochres, umbers


Red, brown

Iron Oxides, Yellow ochres




Yellow, Brown



Blues, violets, greens, pinks, reds

Chromium oxides, hydroxide

Cr2O3, Cr2O3·3H2O

Yellowish (sage) green, bluish green

Aluminum powder

Al (s)


Ferric Ferro-Cyanide, ferric ammonium ferrocyanide


Prussian blue

Manganese Violet



Bismuth Oxychloride


Pearly lustre

5 sec- refer them to web site

Common Inorganic Pigments

(Marmion 99-111, Sagarin 228,233, PCI, Jones)

binders emulsifying agents surfactants and emollients
Binders, Emulsifying Agents, Surfactants, and Emollients
  • Binders:
    • Provide cohesion of powders
  • Emulsifying Agents/Surfactants
    • Promote the mixing of otherwise immiscible liquids
    • Lower surface tension, promoting more even mixing
  • Emollients
    • Soften and smooth the skin
  • ***Many cosmetic ingredients serve more than 1 of these purposes, and thus they have been combined for the purpose of listing ingredients.

(“European Commission”, Sagarin 257)

common binders emulsifying agents surfactants and emollients

Only discuss those found in sample formulation that I pick

Common Binders, Emulsifying Agents, Surfactants, and Emollients
  • Zinc and Magnesium Stearate (dry binder)
  • Caprylic/capric triglyceride (solvent/emollient)
  • Octyl Palmitate (binder/emollient)
  • Mineral Oil (binder/emollient)
  • Petroletum (binder/emollient)
  • Squalane (liquid binder/emollient)
  • Isopropyl myristate (liquid binder)
  • Waxes (binders/emulsion stabilizers/emollients/viscosity controlling agents)
  • Castor Oil (see “lipsticks”)

(“European Commission”, Sagarin 227,256-258,288,390, Poucher I 50,344)

preservatives absorbents

Paraben (p-hydroxybenzoate)

Preservatives & Absorbents
  • Preservatives
    • Purpose
      • Inhibit the growth of micro-organisms
    • Examples
      • Parabens (esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid)
      • Glyceryl Monolaurate
      • EDTA
      • Imidazolidinyl Urea
  • Absorbents:
    • Purpose: Absorb water/oil.
    • Examples: Magnesium carbonate, Kaolin
  • Perfume Carriers:
    • Examples: Magnesium carbonate, Chalk

(“Product Dictionary”), (European Commission)

compact powder eyeshadow

(Compact Powder Rouge is manufactured similarly)

(Almay, Inc.)

(Almay, Inc.)

Compact Powder Eyeshadow

Filler 64.7% Pigment 22.6% Liquid Binder 10.5% Solid Binder 2.0% Preservatives 0.6%

Talc (Filler) 64.7%(wt)

Ultramarine Blue (Pigment) 20.0%

Octyl Palmitate (Liquid Binder) 7.0%

Squalane (Liquid Binder) 3.5%

Iron Oxides (Pigment) 2.6%

Zinc Stearate (Solid Binder) 2.0%

Glyceryl Monolaurate

(monoglyceride) (Preservative) 0.5%

EDTA (Preservative) 0.1%

(Ultra Chem)

Procedure:1. Mill, grind, mix dry powder ingredients2. Spray liquid phase into powder while mixing3. Distribute 4. Press5. Dry

(Ultra Chem), (Sagarin 258-261)

liquid gel rouge


Liquid/Gel Rouge

Water 67% Other Solvents 19% Pigment 4.5% Emulsifiers 9.6% Perfumes 0.2% Preservatives 0.15%

Water (softened or distilled) 67%

Glycerin (solvent) 19%

Diethylene glycol monostearate

(emulsifier) 4.3%

Cetyl alcohol ethoxylate 2.9%

Titanium dioxide 2-3%

Pigment 2.0%

Iso-Propyl myristate (binder) 1.9%

Cetyl alcohol

(emulsifier/emollient) 0.48%

Perfume 0.2%

Methyl paraben (preservative) 0.15%

Bromo acid (colourant) 0.02%

  • Heat and mix emulsion base.
  • Dissolve methylparaben in glycerin by heat (separate vessel).
  • Add water to glycerin and heat to 75°C.
  • Add water-glycerin mixture to emulsion base with slow, continuous stirring.
  • Allow to cool with continuous stirring.
  • Add perfume and pigment, including titanium dioxide, to mixture and mix well.


(Poucher III 284)

solid stick rouge

(Wet N Wild)

Solid (stick) Rouge

Castor Oil 77.4%

Candelilla wax 9.9%

Carnauba wax 2.7%

Color 10.0%

Perfume q.s.

(Processed similar to lipstick)

(Sagarin 254)

cream solid eyeshadow

(Black Opal/BioCosmetic Research Labs)

Petroleum jelly* (binder/base) 25.6%

Paraffin wax (binder/emollient) 22.6%

Isopropyl palmitate

(binder/emollient) 16.4%

Lustre Pigments 10.3%

Pigments 8.2%

Beeswax (binder/emollient) 5.1%

Oleyl alcohol (emulsion stab.) 5.1%

Lanolin (emollient) 4.1%

Cetyl alcohol (emulsifier/emollient) 3.1%

Perfume 0.5%

Butylparaben (preservative) 0.02%

Propylparaben (preservative) 0.01%

Cream-Solid Eyeshadow

Binders/Emollients/ Emulsifiers 82.0% Pigment 18.5% Perfumes 0.5% Preservatives 0.03%

  • Procedure:
  • Heat together non-wax binders/emulsifiers/emollients
  • Mix in preservatives and pigments
  • Melt waxes and add with lustre pigments to base mixture
  • Cool, and add perfume
  • Pour into moulds and allow to set

(Poucher III 294)




Solvent 69.7% Waxes 14.0% Pigments 12.0% Polyethylene 4.2%

Isoparaffin (Solvent) 69.7%

Pigments 12.0%

Beeswax 5.4%

Ozokerite wax 5.4%

Polyethylene 4.2%

Carnauba wax 2.0%

Microcrystalline wax 1.2%

Procedure:1. Mix polyethylene with about half the solvent2. Heat to about 100°C with stirring3. Add remainder of solvent4. Cool rapidly5. Add the pigments and melted waxes, and mixed thoroughly.

(Poucher III 305)

properties of liquid cream
Properties of Liquid Cream
  • Cover blemishes in skin
  • Even skin tone and texture
  • Does not rub off
  • Removable with cleansers
function of ingredients
Function of Ingredients
  • Humectants
    • Reduce drying out of cream
    • Moisturize skin
    • Plasticize product
    • Control texture
  • Emulsifiers
    • Create stable mixture of oil and water
function of ingredients31
Function of Ingredients
  • Emollients
    • Smooth skin
    • Soften skin
  • Gums
    • Protective colloid
    • Suspending agent
    • Film formation
function of ingredients32
Function of Ingredients
  • Vehicle
    • Deionized water
  • Filler/Matrix
    • Talc, Rhapsody 4M
  • Colorants
    • Add color
    • Iron oxides and titanium dioxide
function of ingredients33
Function of Ingredients
  • Fragrances
  • Preservatives
  • Add deionized water to kettle and water phase ingredients
  • Disperse gums and pigments
  • Heat to 75 deg C
  • Combine oil phase ingredients separately
  • Heat to 70 deg C
  • Add oil phase to water phase
  • Cool to 35 deg C
  • Add fragrance and preservatives
  • Cool to 28 deg C
product market consumer
Product -> Market -> Consumer
  • Marketing Techniques
    • Advertisement
      • Visual, internet
      • Odor, magazine
    • Free Sample
    • Counseling
      • Product advice
    • Consumer research
      • questionnaires
    • Efficiency
cosmetics labeling
Cosmetics Labeling
  • Manufactures of cosmetics must print certain information on the labels of each product:
    • The identity of the product
    • The net quantity in metric units
    • The name and address of the manufacturer or distributor
    • Any warnings or cautions necessary for the safe use of the product.
  • Types of labels
    • White labels
    • Clear labels
    • Labels on the bottles
  • Characteristics of Polymer and Surfactant
    • Suspension of cosmetic ingredients
    • Favorable adhere to skin
  • Eye shadow and Blush
    • Color; binders (dry compact), emulsifiers (gel/cream)
  • Lipstick
    • Color; Waxes and vegetable oils as emulsifiers
  • Liquid Cream
    • Emulsifiers, preservatives
  • Face Powder
    • Reduce interfacial tension, adhere, slip

Andersen, Kristin. “Cosmetic Colorants.” Healthwell. Penton Media (04 Apr 2002).

European Commission Enterprise DG UNIT F/3 - Biotechnology, Competitiveness in Pharmaceuticals, Cosmetics. “The International Nomenclature of Cosmetic Ingredients.” (23 Oct 2001). - Inventory of Cosmetic Ingredients

Jones, Mr. “Photographic Chemical Descriptions.” (23 Mar 2001). - photographic chemical site, used to get pigment color of ferric ferrocyanide

Marmion, Daniel M. Handbook of U.S. Colorants for Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics. 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons (1984).

Paint and Coatings Industry (PCI). (Iron Oxide Information),1846,13449,00.html.

Poucher, W.A., and G.M. Howard. Perfumes, Cosmetics and Soaps. Vol. I. 8th Ed. Chapman and Hall (1974).

Poucher, W.A., and G.M. Howard. Perfumes, Cosmetics and Soaps. Vol. III. 8th Ed. Chapman and Hall (1974).

“Product Dictionary.” Make Me Up (2000). - List and short description of cosmetic ingredients

Sagarin, Edward, Ed. Cosmetics: Science and Technology. Interscience Publishers (1957).

Ultra Chemical Inc. “Pressed Eyeshadow, Matte.” (2000).

Walgreens. - Cosmetics photos.