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Chapter 34 - Interior SW Asia. 3 bands of green, white, and red; the national emblem (the word Allah in the shape of a tulip, symbol of martyrdom) ALLAH AKBAR (God is Great) in white is repeated 11 times along the bottom edge of the green band and 11 times along the top edge of the red band.

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chapter 34 interior sw asia

Chapter 34 - Interior SW Asia

3 bands of green, white, and red; the national emblem (the word Allah in the shape of a tulip, symbol of martyrdom) ALLAH AKBAR (God is Great) in white is repeated 11 times along the bottom edge of the green band and 11 times along the top edge of the red band


ii iran


A. Physical geography

a physical geography

A. Physical geography

The heart of the country is the Plateau of Iran

An immense area covering 1,648,000 km2 in the center of Iran and encompassing a great variety of climates, soils and topography. It is almost completely surrounded on all sides by mountain ranges.

a physical geography1

A. Physical geography


Zagros Mountains to the southwest

a physical geography2

A. Physical geography

Elburz and Kopet mountains to the north

a physical geography3

The area can be divided into two major deserts

A. Physical geography

Great Kavir, one of the greatest deserts of the world in the central Iran

a physical geography4

A. Physical geography

The Dasht-e-Kavir (Great Salt Desert) in the north

Salt Cover in Central Iran Desert

a physical geography5

A. Physical geography

The Dasht-e-Lut in the south

Dasht-e-Lut, a sand and stone desert of eastern Iran and one of the hottest deserts in the world

a physical geography6


Steppe and desert climates are typical

A. Physical geography

b economic geography1

B. Economic geography

Barley and wheat are the major grains

Iran Forecast to Become World's Largest Wheat Importer

b economic geography2

B. Economic geography

Iran is of the world’s largest producers of pistachios

b economic geography3

B. Economic geography

Fruits, tea, cotton, rice, and mulberry trees are grown along the shore of the Caspian Sea

b economic geography4

B. Economic geography

Mountain water must be diverted to the fertile valley soils

b economic geography5

B. Economic geography

Qanats are tunnels that carry water from springs at the foot of mountains to the plains

b economic geography6

B. Economic geography

Low technology methods and tools are still used

c urban geography1

A central marketplace and a mosque are characteristics of Iranian cities

C. Urban geography

Iran - Esfahan main square and mosque

c urban geography3

Other important cities include Abadan, Tabriz, Isfahan, and Qom

C. Urban geography

Masjid-i Shah Mosque Isfahan

View of Qom

Tabriz City Hall

d human geography2

The Shah, Iran’s ruler, launched a program of modernization and industrialization

D. Human geography

Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi

e afghanistan1

A mountain range called the Hindu Kush cuts across northern Afghanistan

E. Afghanistan

Hindu Kush Mountains extend for 1,000 km (600 mi) in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Tajikistan. About two dozen peaks surpass 7,000 m (23,000 ft)

e afghanistan2

E. Afghanistan

It is situated between Iran, Pakistan, China, and the Central Asian Republics

e afghanistan3

E. Afghanistan

Afghanistan is one of the world’s least developed countries

Purchasing power parity - $700 (2003 est.)

Life expectancy at birth: (2004 est.)

male: 42.27 years

female: 42.66 years

Infant mortality rate: 165.96 deaths/1,000

live births

e afghanistan4

E. Afghanistan

Agriculture is the main occupation

Agriculture 80%

Industry 10%

Services 10%

e afghanistan5

E. Afghanistan

The mountains are mineral-rich, but deposits are undeveloped

natural gas, petroleum, coal, copper, chromite, talc, barites, sulfur, lead, zinc, iron ore, salt, precious and semiprecious stone

e afghanistan7

E. Afghanistan

Almost all Afghans are Muslims

Sunni Muslim 80%,

Shi'a Muslim 19%

other 1%

e afghanistan8

The Soviet Union invaded in 1979, but was forced to withdraw 10 years later

E. Afghanistan

Islamic guerrillas stand on top of a Soviet helicopter they brought down in Afghanistan’s Panjsher Valley, north of Kabul, in 1979.


After the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, US-led military action toppled the Taliban for sheltering Osama Bin Ladin

e afghanistan10

E. Afghanistan

Presidential elections were held in October 2004 and a new constitution was adopted

Hamid Karzai