Ch. 4 States of Consciousness Consciousness - Our awareness of various cognitive processes, such as sleeping, dreaming, concentrating, and making decisions Altered state of consciousness (ASC) - mental state that differs noticeably from normal waking consciousness 1. Conscious Experience
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Research into sleep patterns shows that normal sleep consists of several stages. Following the initial "twilight" state, which is characterized by irregular, low-voltage alpha waves and a state of relaxed wakefulness, the sleeper enters Stage 1 of sleep…
REM sleep is also called paradoxical sleep because while brain activity and other physiological symptoms resemble those recorded during waking consciousness, the sleeper appears to be deeply asleep and is incapable of moving because of paralysis of the body's voluntary muscles
Substance use may be essential for medical reasons and it may also be culturally approved and valued. By contrast, substance abuse is a pattern of drug use that diminishes the person's ability to fulfill responsibilities at home or at work or school, that results in repeated use of a drug in dangerous situations, or that leads to legal difficulties related to drug use