Animation in France Emile Cohl Ladislav Starevitch Alexander Alexeieff and Claire Parker Peter Foldes Rene Laloux Paul Grimault
Emile Cohl (1857-1938) Emile Cohl (Émile Courtet) called "The Father of the Animated Cartoon" and "The Oldest Parisian" was born in Paris in 18571864 at the age of 7, he was enrolled at the Ecole professionelle de Pantin, a boarding school known as the Institut Vaudron after its founder.
Emile Cohl (1857-1938) 1870 the Franco-Prussian War began. The chaos caused by the siege of Paris led to the closing of his father’s factory. 1872 three-year apprenticeship with a jeweler. Émile drew caricatures, enlisted in the Cherbourg regiment.1878, Émile obtained a letter of recommendation from Etienne Carjat to approach André Gill, the best-known caricaturist of the day, for a job. Gill's trademark was the large, recognizable head of the target (with a fairly benign expression) atop a small puppet body (doing something ridiculous). It was based on fantoche puppetry.
Emile Cohl (1857-1938) 1881 André Gill was committed to the Charenton mental asylum. He managed to recover in a few months and in 1882 submitted his first serious painting, "Le Fou" (The Madman) to the Salon. The painting's poor reception by the artists of the Salon sent him back to Charenton.1883 editor in chief of La Nouvelle Lune the focus was absurdism, nightmares, and the drawing style of children. 1883 "an exhibition of drawings by people who do not know how to draw" at the Vivienne Gallery. Émile Cohl's contribution was titled Portrait garanti ressemblant (Portrait--Resemblance Guaranteed) 1886 Cohl produced his most bizarre and characteristic work in the Incoherent vein: Abus des metaphors, a collection of more than a dozen colorful expressions brought to life.
Emile Cohl (1857-1938) 1885 Andre Gill died deserted by his friends and public with only Cohl by his side. 1898 started contributing to L'Illustré National. This would be the origin of Cohl's comic strips. 1907 the 50-year old Émile Cohl, like everyone else in Paris, had become aware of motion pictures. 1907- scenarist writer at French film studio Gaumont1907 huge success of the film "The Haunted Hotel", released by Vitagraph and directed by J. Stuart Blackton. Cohl studied the film frame by frame, and in this way discovered the techniques of animation.
Emile Cohl (1857-1938) 1908 "Fantasmagorie" – 6 months which is considered the first fully-animated film ever made. It was made up of 700 drawings, each of which was double-exposed, leading to a running time of almost a minute.
Emile Cohl (1857-1938) 1908 "Fantasmagorie" – 6 months which is considered the first fully-animated film ever made. It was made up of 700 drawings, each of which was double-exposed, leading to a running time of almost a minute. • 1908 "Le Cauchemar du fantoche" ["The Puppet's Nightmare", now lost] • 1908 "Un Drame chez les fantoches" ["A Puppet Drama", called "The Love Affair in Toyland" for American release • 1908 "Mystical Love-Making" for British release] chalk-line style the stick-figure clown protagonists the constant transformations 1909 "Les Joyeaux Microbes" ["The Joyous Microbes", aka "The Merry Microbes" Strange transformations
Emile Cohl (1857-1938) 1909 “Clair de lune espagnol" ["Spanish Moonlight", aka "The Man in the Moon" great matte effects 1910 "Le Tout Petit Faust" ["The Little Faust", aka "The Beautiful Margaret“ loving puppet animation 1910 "Le Peintre néo-impressionniste" ["The Neo-Impressionistic Painter"]1910 Cohl left Gaumont for Pathé, probably for more money"Le Ratapeur de cervelles" ["Brains Repaired"] "La Revanche des espirits" [The Spirit's Revenge 1911 Cohl signed with Eclipse in September. None of Cohl's Eclipse films have survived, so little is known of his work there--it appeared to consist of object animation and travelogues.
Emile Cohl (1857-1938) 1912 – invited to New York city by Éclair's American studio at Fort Lee, New Jersey humorous newsreel inserts and The Newlyweds animated series. Cohl saw both "The Story of a Mosquito" and "Gertie the Dinosaur" live at the Hammerstein Theater in New York, and he recorded his admiration of each in his diary. 1914 the Cohl family left New Jersey for Paris 8 days later a fire destroyed most of Éclair's American films, including all but two of Cohl's films ("He Poses for His Portrait" and "Bewitched Matches" [aka "Les Allumettes ensorcelées" (Fr.)]). 1920 Cohl quit Éclair and made "Fantoche cherche un logement" aka Puppet's Mansion
Emile Cohl (1857-1938) 1929, the severe illnesses of Suzanne and his fellow stamp-collector Albert Coyette forced him to sell off his stamp collection and therefore his means of livelihood. It was believed that all his films were lost1937 Cohl was awarded the medal of the Société d'Encouragement pour l'Industrie Nationale and a stipend of 4000 francs. He had been nominated by Léon Gaumont. 1937 Cohl was admitted to La Pitié hospital for severe burns, the result of being too poor for electricity and drawing by lamplight. He was burned so badly that any movement was agonizing. "I am nothing but a broken marionette" he told a reporter.1938 died of bronchial pneumonia in poverty and deserted
Ladislas Starevich (1882 - 1965) • 1882 born Wladyslaw Starewicz born in Moscow, Russia raised by his grandmother in Kaunas, Lithuaniasecondary school in EstoniaAcademy of Fine Arts in St. Petersburg. • 1910 director of a museum of natural history in Kaunas. made 5 short live-action documentaries for the museum.
Ladislas Starevich (1882 - 1965) • 1910 "Lucanus Cervus" inspired by a viewing of "Animated Matches’ 1908 by Emile Cohl, re-created the fight through stop-motion animation: he removed the legs and mandibles from two beetle carcasses, then re-attached them with wax, creating articulated puppets. • 1911 moved to Moscow and began work with a film company known variously as Khazhonkov.made two dozen films, most of them puppet animations using dead animals: • 1912 "The Beautiful Leukanida" • 1911 "The Ant and the Grasshopper" - got Starewicz decorated by the czar.
Ladislas Starevich (1882 - 1965) 1912 The Cameraman's Revenge • 1914-1918 worked for several film companies, directing 60 live-action features, some of which were fairly successful.
Ladislas Starevich (1882 - 1965) 1917 after revolution the film community largely sided with the White Army and moved from Moscow to Yalta on the Black Sea. • 1917 Starewicz and his family fled before the Red Army could capture the Crimea, stopping in Italy before joining the Russian émigrés in Paris. formed a company in the remains of Georges Méliès' old studio. • 1918 "The Scarecrow" • 1919 company dissolved, with most of the Russians joining the Berlin or Hollywood studios. • 1920 moved to Fontenay-sous-Bois and started on a series of puppet films and made two dozen films.
Ladislas Starevich (1882 - 1965) • 1922 The Frogs That Demand a King, aka Frogland • 1923 Voice of the Nightingale
Ladislas Starevich (1882 - 1965) 1934 The Mascot, aka Puppet Love, aka The Devil's Ball • 1939 Tale of Renard the Fox ten years of production • 1965 died while workingon " Like Dog and Cat”.It was left unfinished out of respect.
Alexander Alexeieff (1901-1982) and Claire Parker(1910 - 1981) • 1901 Alexander Alexeieff was born in Kazan, Russiaspent his childhood in Constantinople, Turkey • Clair Parker born in Boston 1910attended Bryn Mawr college and studied drawing at MIT
Alexander Alexeieff (1901-1982) and Claire Parker(1910 - 1981) 1920s designed and peinted sets for production companies including Ballet Russe Taught himself lithography, engravings, woodcuts, etchings, illustration • 1934 invention of a new technique in animation: the Pinscreen (called the pinboard until the mid-sixties).
Alexander Alexeieff (1901-1982) and Claire Parker(1910 - 1981) 1933 The night on Bald Mountain, based on the music of Moussorgsky. inspired by Ballet Mechanique – Fernand Leger
Alexander Alexeieff (1901-1982) and Claire Parker(1910 - 1981) • 1946 En Passant, based on the Canadian folk song, done at the National Film Board of Canada, opened the international festival of Cannes in 1946. • 1963 The Nose based on Gogol's short story. • 1972 Pictures at an Exhibition based on the music of Moussorgsky • 1980 Three Moods using Moussorgsky's music
Paul Grimault (1905 -1994) • 1905 born in Neuilly-sur_Seigne, France Worked with Andre Sarrut in Les Gemeaux making commercials
Paul Grimault (1905 -1994) 1947 Brave little solder • 1948-1952 The Shepherdess and the Chimneysweep. With partner André Sarrut
Paul Grimault (1905 -1994) 1952 André Sarrut shown the film against Gaumont wishes.This caused a rift between partners and a stop in production. • 1967 Grimault got possession of the film and was able to complete it under a new title, Le Roi et l'Oiseau (there are many names for it in English that have been used in various releases, including: The King and the Bird, The King and the Mockingbird, The Curious Adventures of Mr. Wonderbird .
Paul Grimault (1905 -1994) “Grimault’s films are neither philosophic theses nor revolutionary experiments; but he is the only cartoonist who can be compared with Renoir in his deep feeling for reality, for humanity for the joy and sadness of our experience.”
Peter Foldes (1924 -1977) 1924 born in Budapest 1946 moved to England studied at the Courtauld Institute and the Slade School of Art, London 1949 first one man show at the Hanover Gallery, London From money from that he received from paintings bought movie Camera and made his first film Animated Genesis –grand prix at the Cannes Film Festival 1954 A short vision - grand prix in Venice 1956 moved to Paris return to painting 1977 died in Paris
Peter Foldes (1924 -1977) 1965 return to film 1971 Metadata Canada 1974 Hunger ... aka Faim Canada 1977 Envisage 1977 Rêve 1977 died in Paris
Rene Laloux (1929 – 2004) • 1929 born in Paris went to art school to study painting worked in advertising
Rene Laloux (1929 – 2004) got a job in a psychiatric institution where he began experimenting in animation with the interns. • 1960 1960's "Monkey's Teeth" in collaboration with Paul Grimault's studio using a script written by the Cour Cheverny's interns. • 1964 "Dead Time" with collaborator Roland Topor • 1965 “Les Escargots”
Rene Laloux (1929 – 2004) 1973 "Fantastic Planet"
Rene Laloux (1929 – 2004) • 1981 “Time Masters” with Jean Giraud • 1987 “Gandahar” aka “Light Years” with American Science Fiction master Isaac Asimov. Asimov edited the American translation of this film. It received a significant US film industry award a decade later in 1997.