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  1. Distributed Energy Resources Site Visits Presented by Bevan R. Smith Jr., Director Virgin Islands Energy Office September 23, 2006

  2. A Presentation for theDecisionmakers Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority and the Virgin Islands Energy Office

  3. Distributed Generation • small scale environmentally friendly technologies • installed on and designed primarily to serve a single end-user’s site • any generation built near to a consumer’s load regardless of size or energy source

  4. Virgin Islands DG Public Policy Goals • Secure Partnership with WAPA • Research utilization of renewable/alternative energy resources as Distributed Energy Resources • Conduct workshops for WAPA governing Board, the PSC and general public • Development and Implementation of an interconnection policy for the Territory

  5. Formation of DG TEAM Jim GibsonMay Cornwall, Guy Lacombe Bevan Smith Greg Willocks Melton Smith Park Service WAPA FP&L VIEO WAPA WAPA

  6. USDOE funds and participates David Waldrop (USDOE) Joins team at utility sponsored sites

  7. Leroy Prentice (WAPA) joins DG Team after volcanic ash delays flight.

  8. Virgin Islands DG Public Policy Goals • Research utilization of renewable/alternative energy resources as Distributed Energy Resources

  9. Viable DG Technologies • FUEL CELLS • MICROTURBINES • PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS • WIND

  10. Birch State Park • 5 kW grid tied fuel cell • Unit contains two major components: The fuel processor and power conditioner

  11. Findings on the Fuel Cell unit Plug Power Model SU-1 • the fuel reformer processes a hydrocarbon fuel into a hydrogen rich gas • the power conditioner converts the low voltage current produced by the fuel cell to a high voltage DC • An inverter transforms the high voltage DC to 120 or 240 volts AC • Batteries in the power conditioner ensure sufficient coverage for power surges • consider the more cost effective 200 kW model that uses a phosphoric acid membrane

  12. Findings on the Fuel Cell unit Plug Power Model SU-1 • Provides 5 kW to park operations office • Utilizes natural gas as an energy source (model Genesis 5C utilizes propane gas) • H electrons and protons separate through PEM the (membrane) system • Power produced per unit of energy has an efficiency rating between 30 – 55% • An interconnection policy exists • Grid tied utilizing dual metering system

  13. Problems within Fuel Cell unit • system is only about 25% efficient • water purification problems caused by algae • rodents/insects have chewed wiring • costs upwards of $100,000.00 • operating cost is $7.00/mbtu • inverter trips on power output efficiency, unstable or loss of grid power,low gas flow, high temperature and low water

  14. DG TEAM VISITSSt. Thomas University • A stand-alone PV power system provides 5kW to the University. • The Florida Power and Light and St. Thomas University have a Cooperative Fuel Cell and a Solar PV Project

  15. Hillsborough Landfill • Tampa Electric Company maintains a 30 kW Capstone microturbine at this condemned landfill site

  16. Hillsborough Landfill

  17. Noteworthy Findings on microturbine on landfill • site is UL approved for interconnection • process takes 2-3 % of methane gas from the ground • filters remove large particulates • refrigerator gas dryer adjusts the temperature • gas equipment is $70,000 and $30,000 for the microturbine

  18. 18 kW grid-tied photovoltaic system TECO Subsidizes this system that utilizes 100% of solar energy produced

  19. Findings at Tampa Electric CompanySponsored DG projects • TECO is 3rd largest investor-owned utility • Produces 4000 MW daily using 99% coal • Believes economics for DG systems are unjustifiable • Established an interconnection policy for small systems 10kW< • Enforces dual metering arrangement • Disallows net metering

  20. One hundred fifty 120-watt panels

  21. 20 kW grid tied PV array at University of South Florida

  22. University of South Florida’sParking/Electric Car Charging Station • Provides power for charging station • Includes a switching system that allows batteries to be charge according to their need • Excess is fed to the campus grid only • USF conduct experiments on three semiconductors for pv cells: silicon, copper indium gallium di-selenide and cadmium telluride. • Seeks to get Hydrogen from non-fossil fuel source such as a by-product of fertilizer

  23. Cape Eleuthera Island School 23.5 kW hybrid PV/Wind power system.

  24. Findings at the Island School • 16 kW solar array and a 7.5 kW wind turbine provides 100% of school’s power • Solar water heaters assist in keeping school within its consumption limits • Hybrid system operates the same as pv except you have a wind component • A constructed wetland, camouflaged as a floral garden, aids in water resource management

  25. Florida Solar Energy Center • Review Industry-accepted Standards • Photovoltaics Economics • PV Sytems design review program • Inverter non-islanding feature Tests

  26. Development of an interconnection policy • Investigate interconnection standards UNDERWRITERS LABORATORY (UL) 1741 INSTITUTE OF ELECTRONICS AND ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS (IEEE) 929 & 1547 • Investigate site permitting and design • Investigate building energy codes

  27. Florida Solar Energy Center Photovoltaics Economics

  28. Inverter non-islanding Test

  29. Meter turns in reverse

  30. Inverter can start up generator

  31. Back-up Battery Bank provides power during outages

  32. IMPORTANCE OF DG RESEARCH • Implementation of Act No. 5006 which amended Section 1, Title 30, of the Virgin Islands Code. This allows small power production facilities to interconnect with the local electric utility and sell excess generated electric energy to that utility. • To pilot ten photovoltaic grid-interconnected small power production systems for grantees who submitted innovative renewable energy proposals

  33. IMPORTANCE OF DG RESEARCH • Assist the PSC determining such requirements relative to the minimum size, fuel use and efficiency of a “Qualifying Cogeneration Facility”. • Assist WAPA in addressing safety issues pertaining to interconnectivity to the utility grid

  34. Piloting Grid-tied PV Power Systems of VIEO Grantees/Partners • Innovative Renewable Energy Grant recipients = 10kW • Nature Conservancy = 8 kW • Stefan Larsen = 6.5 kW (hybrid) • Estate Concordia Eco = 5kW

  35. BAMBOULA HAVEN • 1 KW PV SYSTEM OPERATES EQUIPMENT IN THE MULTI-PURPOSE ROOM OF THE CENTER

  36. WERNER WERNICKE ‘S INVERTER CONSOLE • Sharp 165W (24 V nominal): 2Sx3P • Xantrex 5548 with GTI • Xantrex Combiner box • Xantrex C40 Charge Controller • Outback mounting panel • Rolls 4 V, 546 Ah, 12Sx1P

  37. LlOYD WILLIAM’S BATTERY BANK • Batteries provided 26 kWh of energy storage

  38. EDWIN HATCHETTE’S RACK MOUNTED PV PANELS • Sharp 175W (24 V nominal) • 2Sx3P • Xantrex 5548 with GTI • Xantrex Combiner box • Outback mounting panel • Rolls 4 CS 17PS 4 V, 546 Ah, 12Sx1P

  39. ROOF MOUNTED PV PANELS

  40. BRIAN EMERICH’S TILTED ARRAY • Sharp 175W (24 V nominal): 2Sx3P • Xantrex 5548 with GTI • Xantrex Combiner box • Outback mounting panel • MK 8G4DLTP 12 V, 183 Ah, 4Sx1P

  41. INSIDE THE OUTBACK INTEGRATED SUB-PANEL

  42. DUAL METERS INCREASE COSTS • Electricity drawn from WAPA appears on the “IN” meter and Electricity sent to WAPA’s grid appears on the “OUT” meter

  43. MT. VICTORY CAMP • PV Module: Kyocera KC-50 • PV Array: 4S x 5P