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A bit of history . 1500 BC: Babylonians stewing meat in beer 4 th century: Apicius wrote De re Coquinara 9 th century: cookbook from Baghdad 16 th century: Guild members prepared foods 1765: French claim first restaurant opened & served sheep’s feet in white sauce

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a bit of history
A bit of history
  • 1500 BC: Babylonians stewing meat in beer
  • 4th century: Apicius wrote De re Coquinara
  • 9th century: cookbook from Baghdad
  • 16th century: Guild members prepared foods
  • 1765: French claim first restaurant opened & served sheep’s feet in white sauce
  • 1783-1833: Carême emphasized procedure
  • 1846-1935: August Escoffier – 5 families of sauces, Le Livre des menus
20 th century influences
20th century:Influences
  • Immigration Act of 1965
  • Travel - fusion cooking
  • Alice Waters - Chez Panisse, Berkeley 1971
  • Farm to Customer – restaurant, school
  • Celebrity Chefs – Emeril Lagasse, Food Network
  • Health – food & nutrition play “a great role” in maintaining or improving overall health (IFIC 2005) milk, fish, broccoli, tomatoes, whole grains, green leafy veg, oats, garlic, oranges, green tea
commercial foodservice modern brigade front of the house
Commercial Foodservice – Modern Brigade (Front of the House)
  • Dining Room Manager - maître d’hotel
  • Wine Steward - Bar Tender
  • Head Waiter
  • Waitstaff
  • Busser

Brigade system for staffing developed by Esoffier

commercial foodservice large modern brigade back of the house
Commercial Foodservice – LargeModern Brigade (Back of the House)
  • Executive chef: coordinates & directs…

plans menus; creates recipes, sets standards for nutrition, safety, sanitation; observes food preparation & presentation; makes purchasing decisions & hiring decisions

  • Sous-chef: supervises & coordinates preparation of menu items, supervises the kitchen
  • Area chefs: restaurant, room service, banquet
  • Pastry chef: develops recipes, purchases, prepares
  • Line cooks
  • Dishwasher
on site institutional
On-site, Institutional
  • College & universities, K-12 schools, Head Start and daycare, hospitals, retirement centers, Board and Care, business & industry, correction facilities
  • Foodservice director
  • Foodservice manager (of a site)
  • Cook
  • Foodservice assistant
professional chef types of education training
Professional Chef Types of Education & Training
  • Lectures/Courses in: nutrition, sanitation, food science, menu plan, food production, food styling, purchasing, management of people and resources
  • Labs: knife skills, principles of food prep, recognizing aromas, flavors, distinguishing good products from mediocre
culinary training choices
Culinary Training – choices
  • certification

American Culinary Federation (AFC)

Culinary Institute of America (CIA)

  • degree programs in accredited colleges

Johnson & Wales University

LA Trade Tech

  • apprenticeship – US Department of Labor
  • American Culinary Federation (AFC)


Culinarian, personal chef, sous chef, pastry chef, chef de cuisine, executive chef (CEC), master chef

  • Culinary Institute of America


Prochef I (culinarian), Prochef II (chef du cuisine), Prochef III (executive chef)

non commercial settings institutional where foodservice is provided
Non-Commercial Settings (institutional) where foodservice is provided
  • Head Start and Day Care
  • Primary & Secondary Public & Private schools
  • Colleges and Universities
  • Health Care – acute or long-term care
  • Retirement Hotels, Board and Care